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Kev loj hlob thiab tam sim no qhov teeb meem ntawm LED

Aug 15, 2017

Nrog txoj kev loj hlob ntawm cov tshuab LED, LED teeb pom kev zoo los ua neeg coob thiab ntau dua nyob rau hauv lub neej niaj hnub. LED tshuab yog ua si lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv ntau lub teb. Nws yog qhov tsim nyog rau peb paub thiab to taub LED technology. Raws li ib hom tshiab ntawm cov khoom ua tau zoo heev, LED muaj ntau yam zoo tshaj plaws, xws li kev siv nyiaj, kev txuag hluav taws xob, kev tiv thaiv ib puag ncig, kev nyab xeeb, kev nplua nuj xim, me me, kev yoo teb, kev co tsis ua haujlwm thiab yooj yim kho. Nws tshwm sim yog pom tau tias yog ib qho kev cog lus pheej yig tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua nees nkaum. Lub teeb pom kev zoo yog lub zog loj tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb thib ob, suav txog li 19% ntawm tag nrho cov kev siv zog. Yog tias peb siv LED es tsis txhob siv lub teeb roj teeb, nws yuav txuag tau 90% ntawm kev siv hluav taws xob. Nws yog kwv yees hais tias xyoo 2010 yog kuv muaj 1 / ntau tshaj 3 ntawm cov roj teeb ntawm cov hluav taws xob tau hloov los ntawm semiconductor teeb pom kev siv tshuab, ces ib xyoo yuav txuag tau 100 billion lub teeb hluav taws xob, txuag thee 50 lab (T), txo cov khib nyiab thiab slag hmoov av txog 6 lab 670 txhiab (T). Yog li, txoj kev lag luam ntawm LED kev lag luam thiab qib kev teeb pom kev zoo ntawm LED teeb pom kev zoo yuav txo cov kev siv zog thiab kev ua kom muaj paug, thiab muaj qhov tseem ceeb rau Tuam Tshoj txoj kev loj hlob.

1. Kev loj hlob ntawm cov keeb kwm LED:

1 - 1. Hom thiab keeb kwm kev loj hlob ntawm monochromatic teeb LED. Cov khoom siv thaum ntxov siv ntawm GaAsP, semiconductor PN hlav teeb ci ntsa iab ntawm LED teeb ci qhov muag yog nyob rau hauv thaum ntxov 1960s. Tsuas yog xim liab, thiab los ntawm qhov nruab nrab ntawm 70s, LED hloov mus rau hauv ntsuab, daj, thiab txiv kab ntxwv teeb. Thaum pib ntawm 80s, qhov ci tau zoo heev.

1-2 . Kev loj hlob ntawm teeb pom kev zoo LED. LED los ntawm liab LED rau xim xiav, LED thiab dawb LED mus dhau peb theem, xim liab thiab ntsuab yog monochromatic LED. Nyob rau xyoo 1996, lub teeb ci teeb pom kev dawb pib, tau ua tiav xyoo 1998, kos npe siv cov teeb pom kev dawb LED, tiam sis kuj yog rau txoj kev tsim teeb ntawm LED teeb pom kev zoo rau lub taw tes pib.

1-3. Qhov kev loj hlob sai ntawm cov dawb LED. Nrog kev kawm tas mus li ntawm kev siv tshuab, nyob rau hauv xyoo tas los, txoj kev loj hlob ntawm cov teeb pom kev dawb LED yog ceev heev. Qhov zoo ntawm lub teeb ci dawb ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo tshaj qhov teeb ntawm cov roj teeb, thiab lub teeb ci ntsa iab kuj siv nyob rau hauv lub teeb siab xws li tsheb siab kab.

2. LED txoj cai ntawm luminescence thiab kev faib tawm ntawm LED

2-1. Tus qauv ntawm LED yog ib qho khoom siv electroluminescentsemiconductor, muab tso rau ntawm ib lub xov hlau, ces khi nrog epoxy cob ib ncig, los tiv thaiv tus tub ntxhais muaj nuj nqi, yog li qhov teeb meem seismic ntawm LED zoo. Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov LED yog ib lub wafer uas yog hom P cov ntsiab lus thiab hom N semiconductors. Nws muaj ib qho kev hloov ntawm P hom khoom nruab nrab ntawm cov P thiab N type semiconductor, hu ua pn junction. Nyob hauv qee cov PN cov haujlwm ntawm cov khoom siv ntawm semiconductor, cov neeg tsav tsheb tsawg ntawm cov koob txhaj tshuaj ua ke nrog cov neeg feem coob tuaj tso tawm ntau lub zog hauv daim ntawv ntawm lub teeb, uas hloov cov hluav taws xob ncaj qha mus rau lub teeb zog. PN hlws ris ntxiv thiab nrawm qhov hluav taws xob, cov cab neeg tsawg tsawg yog nyuaj rau hno, yog li ntawd nws tsis ua lub teeb. Lub diode, uas ua los ntawm kev tso cai ntawm electroluminescent, yog hu ua lub teeb-emitting diode, feem ntau hu ua LED. Thaum nws ua txoj haujlwm zoo (uas xaus nrog rau pem taub hau), qhov tam sim no ntws los ntawm LED anode cathode, semiconductor iav ntawm qhov teeb meem los ntawm ultraviolet mus rau sab qaum lub teeb ntawm txawv xim lub teeb thiab lub zog ntawm qhov tam sim no. Yuav ua li cas ntau lub teeb tuaj yeem tshwm sim nyob ntawm qhov zoo ntawm cov khoom siv ntawm semiconductor, tus qauv nti, cov qauv geometry, lub ntim khoom, cov khoom ntim thiab cov khoom ntim.

2-2. LED classification:

(1) Nws tuaj yeem muab faib ua cov liab, txiv kab ntxwv, ntsuab (ntsuab daj, ntsuab ntsuab thiab ntsuab ntshiab), xiav lub teeb thiab kom zoo raws li cov xim luminous ntawm lub raj luminous. Tsis tas li ntawd, qee qhov LEDs muaj chips ntawm ob los yog peb xim.

(2) Raws li lub teeb pom kev ntawm LED teeb, doped nrog los yog tsis muaj kob los yog tsis muaj xim, xim ntau yam ntawm lub teeb-emitting diodes yuav muab faib ua xim pob tshab, tsis muaj xim, tsis muaj xim thiab tsis muaj plaub hom scattering tawg. Ib qho tawg tawg thiab siv los ua qhov taw qhia.

(3) Raws li cov yam ntxwv ntawm lub luminous ntawm lub raj luminous, raws li cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov luminous ntawm lub luminous raj, lub teeb teeb, lub teeb txawb, cov duab plaub thiab lub luminous deg ntawm lub raj, lub hauv paus raj, nto mounting micro raj, thiab lwm yam. Lub teeb lub teeb yog faib ua kab ntawv 2 hli, Phi 4.4mm, Phi 5 hli, Phi 8 hli, Phi 10 hli thiab phi 20mm ntawm lub taub. Teb chaws, 3mm 1/4 feem ntau yog lo lus "T-1", thiab "5mm" yog muab piv txwv li "T-1" (3/4), thiab "4.4mm" yog ua "T-1".

(4) Raws li cov qauv ntawm LED: raws li cov qauv ntawm LED, muaj tag nrho epoxy sealing, hlau puag, epoxy ntim, ceramic puag, epoxy ntim thiab iav ntim thiab lwm yam kev.

(5) Raws li kev siv luminous thiab kev ua hauj lwm tam sim no divides: raws li lub luminous siv thiab cov chaw ua hauj lwm tam sim no, muaj qhov dog dig ci ci LED (luminous siv 100mcd); qhov luminous siv ntawm 10 ~ 100mcd yog hu ua lub siab ci coj. Feem ntau, kev ua hauj lwm tam sim no ntawm LED yog tshaj li kaum mA rau kaum ntawm mA, thaum lub sij hawm tam sim no ua hauj lwm tam sim no ntawm LED tam sim no yog 2mA (ci ntsa iab yog tib yam li ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo). Ntxiv nrog rau cov kev cai saum toj no, kuj muaj kev cais tawm raws li cov ntawv nti thiab kev faib tawm los ntawm kev ua haujlwm.

3. Cov teeb meem ntawm LED

3-1. LED technology raws li txoj cai

(1) Cov khoom siv tshuab hluav taws xob

LED epitaxial cov ntaub ntawv ua rau qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws rau txoj kev lag luam ntawm kev lag luam hluav taws xob kom ceev ceev, tam sim no mainstream technology tseem yog ib qho sapphire substrate epitaxial GaN khoom, silicon carbide substrate nrog thermal conductivity thiab zoo lattice txuam yog qhov kev loj hlob kev loj hlob ntawm GaN cov ntaub ntawv. Cov ntaub ntawv GaN nonpolar hlob ntawm M ua qhov kev tshawb fawb ua kom pom tseeb hauv cov kev sib tw tsis tshua muaj siab thiab kev ua hauj lwm high photon. UCSB tau tshaj tawm hais tias qhov ua tau zoo ntawm Epitaxial ntawm cov khoom LED yog 41%. Tsis tas li ntawd, kev siv technology ntawm kev loj hlob ntawm epitaxial silicon raws li cov ntaub ntawv nrog cov khoom ntiag tug ntawm cov khoom ntiag tug kuj tau tsim nws cov yam ntxwv. Nws yuav tsum tau tshem ntawm cov blockade ntawm LED epitaxial khoom siv tshuab ntawm Nyiv thiab United xeev. Silicon raws li cov ntaub ntawv qhia txog epitaxial muaj txiaj ntsig zoo nqi piv nrog cov neeg ntawm sapphire thiab SiC substrate epitaxy cov ntaub ntawv. Silicon raws li LED epitaxial cov ntaub ntawv kuj tau yooj yim stripped los ntawm gallium nitrite epitaxial cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm laser stripping tshuab thiab fabricated rau hauv kev kawm siab ntsug qauv chips. Tsis ntev los no, kev lag luam-tsim teeb pom kev zoo ntawm lwm cov khoom siv ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob hauv lub cev yog tsim kev ceev ceev, cov khoom siv hluav taws xob organic tsawg muaj cov nqi qis, qhov loj thiab lwm yam tsawg tsawg ntawm cov organic organic thaum ntxov hauv daim teb ntawm cov khoom me me pixels tam sim no, Toshiba thiab lwm lub lag luam thoob ntiaj teb tau tsim LED organic khoom daim ntawv thov Yu Zhaoming, muaj peev xwm ua tau ib qho kev taw qhia ib qho. Txawm li cas los, daim ntawv loj-loj ntawm cov organic organic tseem txwv ntawm nws lub neej thiab cov luminous efficiency. Cov kev sib tw ob qho no yog qhov teeb meem tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev lag luam organic organic.

(2) LED nti tshuab

Raws li txhua tus paub, LED chip voltage yog DC 3V, LED teeb yuav tsum ua hauj lwm nrog cais tsav tsheb rau kev hloov AC rau hauv qis-voltage DC ua hauj lwm hauv lub xeev, txheej txheem ntawm qhov poob ntawm lub zog hloov, thiab LED tsav fais fab kev cia siab rau kev qis , lub neej tsis phim nrog cov khoom siv tes ua ntev ntev, ua rau poob rau hauv lub neej tag nrho ntawm lub teeb ci. High voltage LED tshuab le micro machining txheej txheem los ntawm semiconductor nti nto hauv cov pa hluav taws xob ntau ntau tandem LED PN hlauv taws xob, ua hauj lwm voltage ntawm tus ntaus ntawv mus rau 100V ~ 200V, tuaj yeem ua haujlwm siab, simplified LED Circuit Court, thiab kev cia siab.

(3) lub thawv ntim

Tam sim no, lub khw lag luam yog ib lub lag luam zoo tshaj plaws LED cov lag luam. Qhov kub pob rau lub 2014 pob LED pob yog siv rau cov nplooj nrig noob, LED series chips yog ntim rau hauv iav los yog sapphire substrate, sib sau 360 lub luminous lub cev, tam sim no ua hauj lwm me me, siab ua hauj lwm voltage, AC tsav tswvyim, rho tawm tus nqi ntawm tus neeg tsav tsheb LED siv. Cov phuam qhwv pob muaj peev xwm muab tsim tau cov nyhuv ntawm cov xim tungsten ntawm lub teeb. Lub luminous Performance index ntawm lub teeb tau zoo heev tuaj tom qab lub teeb liab lub chips txuas nrog series, uas tau dhau los ua ib qho kev tshawb fawb kub nyob rau hauv daim teb ntawm daim ntawv thov. Lwm cov teeb pom kev zoo siv nyob rau sab hauv tsev, LED teeb ntim nyhav me me thiab nruab nrab lub hwj chim, tuaj yeem txo cov naj npawb ntawm cov ntawv thov LED, kom thiaj li ua kom txo tau cov nqi. Tsis tas li ntawd tus ntiv tes tib ob chav teeb lub teeb ci rau ntxiv kev txhim kho. Tab sis muaj hwj chim loj hauv lub teeb nyob sab hauv tsev yuav ua rau muaj kev kub siab dua ntawm lub teeb cua txias, tab sis kuj ua rau lub teeb ci ntsa iab heev, tsis muaj teeb meem sib txeeb ntawm qhov teeb ntawm lub teeb. Qhov teeb meem no yog tshwj xeeb pom nyob rau hauv daim ntawv thov ntawm LED teeb lub raj. Thaum lub hwj chim ntawm lub teeb nyob rau hauv lub teeb yog feeb meej, lub teeb nrig tuaj yeem tshwm nyob rau hauv lub raj xaib. Siv cov lus ceeb toom thiab cov teeb meem nyob rau hauv COB (Chip on board) pob ntawv tseem yog ib daim ntawv teev npe kub. Daim ntawv thov pob ntawm sab nraum zoov yog ua raws li nruab nrab lub zog thiab siab zog LED nti ntim, thiab lub zog muaj zog yog 1W. Los ua tus tsav tam sim no, LED lub hwj huam tuaj yeem txuas mus rau 3W, tab sis nyob rau hauv qhov teeb meem ntawm kev lag luam tam sim no, cov LED nti muaj tsawg luminous efficiency thiab ntau dua cov cua sov yuav tsum tau muaj.

3-2. Daim ntawv thov txheej xwm ntawm LED

Nyob rau hauv lub neej niaj hnub, LED tau qhov txhia chaw, thiab daim teb ntawv yog ntau thiab ntau kim heev. Nyob rau ntawm tam sim no, nws yog tsuas yog siv nyob rau hauv cov nram qab no:

(1) LED yog ib qho khoom siv hauv lub xeev. Nws muaj qhov zoo ntawm kev ruaj khov, kev poob siab ua haujlwm, kev poob siab tsis kam, lub teeb ci teb, lub neej ntev thiab lub teeb. Nws yog dav siv nyob rau hauv ntau yam hauv tsev thiab sab nraum zoov, nrog rau cov tsheb khiav lag luam thiab kev lag luam tsheb. Daim ntawv thov nyob rau hauv kev lag luam tsheb, lub tsheb dashboard muaj cov teeb sab hauv lub teeb, hloov lub teeb, nyeem teeb thiab sab nraud teeb, teeb qhov teeb, sab teeb thiab taws teeb. Tshwj xeeb tshaj yog, qhov teeb meem loj ntawm LED siab nres ntawm lub tsheb, raws li cov lus teb ceev ceev, koj tuaj yeem hais qhia rau tus neeg tsav tsheb kom ntxov li sai tau, kom txo tau tsheb rov qab tsheb kawg. Tuam Tshoj lub tsheb kev lag luam yog nyob rau hauv ib lub sijhawm ntawm kev loj hlob zoo, thiab nws yog ib lub sijhawm zoo heev rau kev nyiam ultra siab ci teeb pom kev zoo.

(2) LED vim qis zog noj, hloov CCFL backlight ua mainstream, LED li lub LCD backlight daim ntaub ntawv, nrog cov kev pab cuam lub neej ntev, siab luminous efficiency, tsis cuam tshuam thiab tus nqi siab, tau lug siv hauv txawb xov tooj, computer thiab lwm yam khoom siv high-tech hluav taws xob.

(3) LED qhov chaw teeb pom kev zoo yog ntau thiab nrov dua nyob rau hauv tag nrho lub neej thiab cov neeg hauv tsev neeg. Tsis muaj ultraviolet thiab infrared spectra nws ua, tsis muaj cua sov thiab hluav taws xob, thiab tuaj yeem txo cov roj carbon dioxide thiab lwm cov khoom cua gases uas yog ib puag ncig zoo, tuaj yeem txhim kho neeg nyob puag ncig, yog qhov tseeb ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo. Tib lub sij hawm, LED yuav txuag tau hluav taws xob, nws tsis cia siab rau lub cua sov filament mus rau emit lub teeb, lub zog conversion efficiency yog siab heev, lub zog noj tau raws li 10% piv nrog lub teeb roj teeb, lub teeb roj fluorescent, lub zog txuag txawb tau ncav cuag 50% LED. Tuam Tshoj ntsuab teeb lub chaw ua haujlwm tau ua tshwj xeeb ntawm Tuam Tshoj hluav taws xob hluav taws xob txhua xyoo nyob rau hauv ntau dua 300 billion degrees, siv LED los hloov tag nrho los yog ib feem los hloov lub teeb hluav taws xob teeb pom kev zoo, 1/3 teeb pom kev zoo yog 100 lab degrees kom txuag tau hluav taws xob, lub zog yog heev Tense, yog undoubtedly ntawm kuj zoo kawg tseem ceeb.

4. Txoj kev loj hlob ntawm LED

4-1. Muaj tseem chav rau kev txhim kho nyob rau hauv lub teeb ci. Raws li hais dhau los, txawm hais tias cov teeb ci LED tau ua dhau lub dhau los peb tiam lub teeb pom kev, nws tseem nyob deb ntawm qhov siab tshaj theoretical tus nqi, uas yog hais tias, nws tseem muaj peev xwm zoo rau txoj kev loj hlob. Tam sim no, cov teeb meem ntawm sab hauv ntawm LED tau siab heev, thiab feem ntau tuaj yeem siab tshaj 90% (cov quantum efficiency ntawm cov khoom zoo tuaj yeem ncav cuag 99%), tab sis cov nqi quantum sab nraud feem ntau tsawg heev. Yog hais tias cov quantum efficiency tau zoo heev, cov luminous efficiency ntawm cov khoom LED yuav ua tau zoo heev. Qhov no yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav LED.

4-2. Kev txhim kho xim rendering Performance index yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm LED teeb ci. Feem ntau, cov xim rendering yog qhov siab thiab qhov teeb ci ntawm lub teeb qis dua; cov teeb pom kev zoo siab yog siab thiab cov xim rendering Performance index me ntsis tuaj. Qee cov ntaub ntawv, xws li zaj duab xis thiab TV, theem teeb pom kev zoo, yuav tsum tau muaj xim siab heev rau cov teeb pom kev zoo.

4-3. Tib lub teeb ci teeb pom kev zoo yuav tsum kho. Tam sim no, lub zog ntawm ib qho 1-LED teeb qhov chaw yog feem ntau 3 W lossis 5 W. Txawm hais tias ib qho 10 W LED tau tshwm sim, nws tsis yog ntau. Cov kob loj tshaj yog daim ntawv ntawm ib lub module (uas sib sau ntau yam LED rau ib lub substrate), xws li 100 W thiab 130 W LED, uas yog cov khoom siv hluav taws xob-tawm. Qhov no yog vim cov teeb ci LED yog xam raws li lub ntim ntawm lub luminous lub cev, thiab lub tshav kub tiam yog siab, thiab qhov teeb meem ntawm tshav kub hluav taws xob nyuaj dua.

4-4. Cov nqi yuav tsum tau txo qis. Tus nqi ntawm LED lub teeb qhov khoom yog ib qho ntawm cov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws uas cuam tshuam rau nws qhov siv loj. Nrog lub maturity ntawm technology thiab nce ntawm batch ntau lawm, tus nqi thiab tus nqi ntawm LED teeb qhov chaw yuav zoo heev txo. Nws tuaj yeem hais tias qhov chaw ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo ntawm cov teeb pom kev dawb yog qhov nqi tau nqis siab, thaum cov nqi tau nqis los, thiab nws muaj peev xwm ua tiav ib lub lag luam loj tom qab cov dawb LED. Muaj tsis muaj kev ntseeg tias kev sib tos ntawm ob qhov kawg nyob ntawm qhov kev loj hlob sai ntawm high-tech.