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Zaub daim ntawv teev, series ntawm graphics commands uas txhais tau ib tug tso zis duab

Apr 22, 2017

zaub daim ntawv teev



Ib tug zaub daim ntawv teev (los yog zaub ua ntaub ntawv thov) yog ib tug series ntawm graphics commands uas txhais tau ib tug tso zis duab. Cov duab no yog tsim ( nws ) los ntawm executing cov commands muab ntau yam primitives . Cov kev ua no yog feem ntau ua los ntawm tshwj xeeb zaub los yog ua kho vajtse tej los yog kiag li ywj siab ntawm lub cev kev CPU rau lub hom phiaj ntawm freeing lub CPU los ntawm cov nyiaj siv ua haujlwm ntawm kev tswj cov zaub, thiab tej zaum yuav muab tso zis nta los yog ceev tshaj ntawd tus CPU tus muaj peev xwm ua.

Rau ib tug zaub ntaus ntawv tsis muaj ib tug ncej tsis , xws li cov laus vector graphics qhia , cov commands tau tua txhua txhua feem ntawm ib tug thib ob kom muaj thiab animate cov qhov tso zis. Nyob rau hauv niaj hnub systems, lub commands yuav tsum tau tsuas yog tseg thaum lawv tau hloov los yog nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav ua tshiab cov qhov tso zis (xws li, thaum es ib tug tsis tshua qhov rai).

Ib tug zaub daim ntawv teev sawv cev ob ob thiab peb-dimensional scenes. Systems uas ua rau kev siv ntawm ib tug zaub daim ntawv teev cia tus scene yog hu ua muab khaws cia tseg hom tshuab raws li txwv mus tam sim ntawd hom tshuab.

Ib tug ntawm cov earliest nrov nruab nrog yeej muaj tseeb zaub daim ntawv teev yog tus Atari 8-ntsis tsev neeg . Cov zaub daim ntawv teev (ua tau hu ua li ntawd nyob rau Atari terminology) yog ib tug series ntawm cov lus qhia rau ANTIC , lub video co-processor siv nyob rau hauv cov cav tov. Qhov kev pab no, muab cia rau hauv lub computer lub cim xeeb thiab tua los ntawm ANTIC nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm, yuav hais kom meej dawb paug kab, tej ntawm rau ntawv nyeem hom thiab yim graphics hom, uas seem ntawm lub screen yuav ua tau horizontally los mas zoo scrolled, thiab txhais zaub Sau los cuam tshuam cov ( hu ua Raster los cuam tshuam cov los yog HBI nyob rau lwm lub tshuab).

Lub Amstrad PCW tsev neeg muaj ib tug zaub Sau nuj nqi hu ua cov 'kev uas quav RAM'. Qhov no yog ib tug 512-byte RAM cheeb tsam uas muaj 256 16-ntsis vectors mus rau hauv RAM, ib qho rau txhua kab ntawm cov 720 × 256 pixel zaub. Txhua vector qhia qhov chaw ntawm 90 bytes ntawm monochrome pixels uas tuav txoj kab txoj kev 720 pixel lub xeev. 90 bytes ntawm 8 pixel lub xeev yeej spaced nyob rau hauv 8-byte Team sib, thiaj li muaj 7 tsis siv bytes ntawm txhua tus byte ntawm pixel cov ntaub ntawv. Qhov no suits yuav ua li cas cov ntawv nyeem-orientated PCW constructs ib tug raug tshuaj ntsuam tsis nyob rau hauv RAM, uas tus thawj cim 8 kab yog muab nyob rau hauv thawj 8 bytes, lub thib ob cim kab nyob rau hauv lub tom ntej no 8 bytes thiab thiaj li nyob. Cov kev uas quav RAM yog DVR rau kom cov zaub scrolling raws li nws yuav tau unacceptably qeeb rau nws 3.4 MHz Z80 mus txav mus rau hauv lub 23 KB zaub tsis 'los ntawm txhais tes' piv txwv li nyob software. Cov kev uas quav RAM pib nkag siv tau nyob rau hauv thaum pib ntawm ib tug kev tshuaj ntsuam refresh yog tshuaj los ntawm ib tug Z80-writable I / O register. Yog li ntawd, qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam yuav tsum scrolled tsuas yog hloov qhov no kuv / O register.

Lwm system siv ib tug zaub Sau-zoo li feature nyob rau hauv kev kho vajtse yog lub Amiga , uas, tsis coincidentally, twb tseem tsim los ntawm ib co ntawm cov tib neeg uas ua lub Atari 8-khoom cai kho vajtse. Lub Amiga zaub kho vajtse twb tsis tshua muaj sophisticated rau nws lub sij hawm thiab, ib zaug ncaj qha mus rau tsim ib tug cov hom zaub, nws yuav mus txuas ntxiv mus ua li ntawd yeej rau txhua txhua scan kab. Lub computer kuj muaj ib saab co-processor, hu ua " Tooj ", uas tau khiav ib tug yooj yim kev pab cuam los yog 'Tooj Sau' npaj rau modifying kho vajtse sau nyob rau hauv sync nrog cov zaub. Lub Tooj Sau cov lus qhia yuav nyiaj tso ncaj rau Tooj tos rau cov zaub mus cuag ib lub hom hauj lwm nyob rau qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam, thiab ces hloov tus txheem ntawm kho vajtse sau. Nyob rau hauv cov nyhuv, nws yog ib tug processor nplooj siab rau nyiaj Raster los cuam tshuam cov . Lub Tooj twb siv los ntawm Workbench kom sib tov ntau yam zaub hom (ntau yuav kho tau thiab xim palettes rau tus saib nyob rau tib lub sij hawm), thiab los ntawm heev heev cov kev pab cuam los tsim zaj sawv thiab gradient los ntawm qhov screen. Nws kuj yog muaj peev xwm sawv ntawm sprite Multiplexing, repositioning ib tug xov tooj ntawm kho vajtse sprites muaj ib scanline.

Nyob rau hauv ntau txheej thaum ub, cov kev tshwm sim ntawm ib tug zaub daim ntawv teev yuav simulated, tab sis yog nyob rau tus nqi ntawm CPU-intensive sau rau tej yam zaub-hom, xim-control, los yog lwm yam uas pom zoo sau nyob rau hauv cov kev yees duab ntaus ntawv, es ib tug series ntawm rendering commands tua los ntawm tus ntaus ntawv. Yog li, ib tug yuav tsum ua tau ib lub tso tawm kom pom duab siv ib co lwm yam rendering txheej txheem, ua ntej los yog thaum lub sij hawm CPU-tsav zaub tiam executes. Nyob rau hauv Feem ntau, cov duab no kuj hloov los yog re-nws ntawm ntas . Cov duab no ces tso tawm nyob rau hauv ntau txoj kev, nyob ntawm seb lub caij nyoog txoj kev nyob rau hauv uas lub CPU-tsav zaub code yog DVR.

Piv txwv ntawm cov kev tshwm sim tau nyob rau hauv cov laus dua cov cav tov yuav tsum CPU-tsav video xws li los xws li Commodore 64/128 tus FLI hom, los yog zaj sawv ua rau lub ZX Spectrum.