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Zaub daws teeb meem, yog hais txog cov xov tooj ntawm cov pixels ntawm ib cov TV los yog saib

Apr 22, 2017

zaub daws teeb meem

From Wikipedia, cov dawb encyclopedia Rau screen ntau thiab tsawg pab (feem ntau nyob rau hauv nti, ntsuas nyob rau kab pheeb ces kaum), mus saib zaub loj . Rau ib daim ntawv teev cov kev zaub uas yuav kho tau, saib Graphics zaub daws teeb meem .

Qhov no daim ntawv qhia tau hais tias feem ntau cov zaub uas yuav kho tau, nrog rau xim ntawm txhua daws teeb meem hom qhia cov zaub ratio (e.g. liab qhia ib tug 4: 3 piv). Qhov no daim ntawv qhia tau hais tias lub feem ntau ntau zaub uas yuav kho tau , nrog rau xim ntawm txhua daws teeb meem hom qhia cov zaub ratio (xws li liab qhia ib tug 4: 3 piv)

Cov zaub daws teeb meem los yog zaub hom ntawm ib tug digital TV , computer saib los yog zaub ntaus ntawv yog tus naj npawb ntawm cov pixels nyob rau hauv txhua dimension uas yuav muab tso tawm kom. Nws yuav ua tau ib tug ambiguous lub sij hawm tshwj xeeb tshaj yog raws li cov tso tawm kom pom kev daws teeb meem yog tswj los ntawm txawv yam nyob rau hauv cathode txoj sab ci raj (CRT) qhia, pav ca-vaj huam sib luag qhia (xws li cov kua-siv lead ua qhia ) thiab projection qhia siv tsau duab-caij (pixel) arrays.

Nws yog feem ntau yog hais raws li dav × qhov siab, nrog rau cov chav nyob hauv pixels: piv txwv li, "1024 × 768" txhais tau tias lub dav yog 1024 pixels thiab qhov siab yog 768 pixels. Qhov kev piv txwv yuav nquag yuav hais raws li "kaum nees nkaum plaub los ntawm xya caum-yim" los yog "kaum nees nkaum plaub los ntawm xya rau yim".

Ib tug siv lub sij hawm "zaub daws teeb meem" siv rau tas-pixel-array qhia xws li ntshav zaub panels (PDP), kua-siv lead ua qhia (LCD), Cov teeb ua (DLP) projectors, OLED qhia, thiab zoo sib xws technologies, thiab tsuas yog lub cev tooj ntawm txhua thiab kab ntawm pixels tsim cov zaub (xws li 1920 × 1080). Ib tug tsim nyog tau muaj ib tug tsau-daim phiaj zaub yog tias, rau multi-hom video inputs, tag nrho cov qhia xav tau ib tug "scaling engine" (ib cov video processor uas muaj xws li ib tug nco array) kom phim cov khoom daim duab hom zaub.

Nco ntsoov tias tawm TV qauv kev siv ntawm cov lo lus daws teeb meem no yog ib tug misnomer, tab sis yog ib qho. Lub sij hawm "zaub daws teeb meem" feem ntau yog siv los txhais pixel qhov ntev, tus xov tooj ntawm pixels nyob rau hauv txhua dimension (eg 1920 × 1080), uas tsis qhia dab tsi txog cov pixel ceev ntawm cov zaub nyob rau hauv uas cov duab no yeej tsim: tshaj tawm hauv xov TV kev daws teeb meem kom zoo yog hais txog mus rau lub pixel ceev , tus xov tooj ntawm pixels ib chav tsev deb los yog cheeb tsam, tsis tag nrho cov xov tooj ntawm cov pixels. Nyob rau hauv cov kev ntsuas, cov zaub daws teeb meem yuav tsum tau muab nyob rau hauv pixels ib nti (PPI). Nyob rau hauv analog ntsuas, yog hais tias tus screen yog 10 inches high, ces tus kab rov tav kev daws teeb meem yog ntsuas thoob plaws ib tug square 10 inches wide. Qhov no yog feem ntau hais raws li "kab kab rov tav kev daws teeb meem, ib daim duab siab;" [1] piv txwv li, analog NTSC TVs yuav feem ntau tso saib txog 340 kab lus ntawm "ib daim duab siab" kab rov tav kev daws teeb meem los ntawm dua-lub-huab cua qhov chaw, uas yog sib npaug kom txog 440 tag nrho cov kab ntawm sij duab ntaub ntawv ntawm sab laug ntug rau txoj kev ntug. [1]


txheem

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Xav txog kev teem [ edit ]

1080p hnyav scan HDTV , uas siv ib tug 16: 9 piv

Ib txhia commentators kuj siv tau zaub daws teeb meem yuav qhia tau ib tug ntau ntawm cov tswv yim tawm tswv hais tias cov zaub lub tswv yim electronics yuav txais thiab feem ntau muaj xws li hom ntau dua qhov screen hom daim phiaj loj txawm tias lawv yuav tsum tau down-scaled kom phim lub screen tus tsis (xws li kev ntseeg ib tug 1920 × 1080 tawm tswv yim rau ib tug zaub nrog ib tug ib txwm 1366 × 768 pixel array). Nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm TV inputs, ntau manufacturers yuav coj lub tswv yim thiab zoom nws tawm mus rau " overscan " cov zaub los ntawm ntau li ntau raws li 5% thiaj li tswv yim daws teeb meem yog tsis tas tso saib daws teeb meem.

Lub qhov muag lub xaav ntawm zaub daws teeb meem yuav muaj cuam tshuam los ntawm ib tug xov tooj ntawm lwm yam - saib duab kev daws teeb meem thiab kho qhov muag daws teeb meem . Ib tug zoo tshaj yuav yog cov zaub screen lub lub zoo, uas yog qhia raws li tus piv ntawm lub cev daim duab dav rau hauv lub cev daim duab siab. Qhov no yog hu ua tus nam piv . Ib tug kev tshuaj ntsuam lub cev nam piv thiab tus neeg pixels 'nam piv tej zaum yuav tsis tas tau tib yam. Ib tug array ntawm 1280 × 720 nyob rau hauv ib tug 16: 9 zaub muaj square pixels, tiam sis ib tug array ntawm 1024 × 768 nyob rau hauv ib tug 16: 9 zaub muaj oblong pixels.

Ib qho piv txwv ntawm pixel zoo rau "kev daws teeb meem" los yog ntaus nqi sharpness: displaying cov lus qhia ntxiv nyob rau hauv ib tug me me rau thaj tsam siv ib tug ntau dua kev daws teeb meem ua rau cov duab ntau dlaim phaj los yog "sharper". Txawm li cas los, feem ntau tsis ntev los no screen technologies yog tsau ntawm ib tug tej yam kev daws teeb meem; ua lub rooj sab rau tej yam cov ntxaij vab tshaus yuav zoo heev txo sharpness, raws li ib tug interpolation txheej txheem yog siv rau "kho" qhov uas tsis yog-haiv neeg daws teeb meem tswv yim rau hauv zaub lub haiv neeg daws teeb meem zis.

Hos ib txhia CRT-raws li qhia tej zaum yuav siv digital video ua uas yuav duab scaling siv cim xeeb arrays, thaum kawg "zaub daws teeb meem" nyob rau hauv CRT-hom qhia yog cuam tshuam los ntawm sib txawv tsis xws li chaw loj thiab ua kom pom tseeb, astigmatic los nyob rau hauv cov zaub fab, cov xim phosphor suab duab ntxoov ntxoo daim npog qhov ncauj (xws li Trinitron ) nyob rau hauv cov xim qhia, thiab cov video bandwidth.

Interlacing tiv tiag hnyav scan [ edit ]

Main tsab xov xwm: qhaib video

Overscan thiab underscan [ edit ]

A 16: 9-piv TV los ntawm Lub kaum hli ntuj 2004

Qhov sib txawv ntawm kev tshuaj ntsuam ntau thiab tsawg pab nyob rau hauv ib co heev devicesMain tsab xov xwm: Overscan

Feem ntau cov TV cov zaub manufacturers "overscan" cov duab nyob rau ntawm lawv qhia (CRTs thiab PDPs, LCDs etc.), yog li ntawd lub zoo on-screen duab tej zaum yuav raug txo los ntawm 720 × 576 (480) mus 680 × 550 (450), piv txwv li . Qhov luaj li cas ntawm cov invisible cheeb tsam dog dig nyob rau ntawm cov zaub ntaus ntawv. HD televisions ua li no raws li zoo, mus rau ib tug zoo xws li cov twg.

Khoos phib tawj qhia nrog rau projectors feem ntau tsis overscan txawm hais tias muaj ntau yam ua qauv (tshwj xeeb yog CRT qhia) tso cai rau nws. CRT qhia yuav tsum underscanned nyob rau hauv Tshuag configurations, pab kom txawm peem rau qhov zuj zus distortions ntawm cov fab.

Tam sim no cov qauv [ edit ]

Kev qhia ntxiv: Daim ntawv teev cov ntau yuav kho tau

Televisions [ edit ]

Televisions yog cov nram qab no uas yuav kho tau:

Khoos phib tawj saib [ edit ]

Kev qhia ntxiv: Computer zaub txheem

Khoos phib tawj saib tau feeb muaj ntau dua uas yuav kho tau tshaj feem ntau televisions.

2000s [ edit ]

Raws li ntawm Lub Xya hli ntuj 2002, 1024 × 768 Ncua Graphics Array yog feem ntau zaub daws teeb meem. [2] [3] Muaj ntau web sites thiab multimedia khoom tau rov tsim los ntawm lub yav dhau los 800 × 600 hom ntawv rau cov layouts optimized rau 1024 × 768.

Lub nyob rau ntawm pheej yig LCD saib tau lub 5: 4 nam piv daws teeb meem ntawm 1280 × 1024 nrov tshaj rau desktop pab thaum lub sij hawm thawj xyoo caum ntawm lub xyoo pua 21st. Muaj ntau computer cov neeg siv xws li CAD cov neeg siv, nraaj nyuab thiab kev ua si video players khiav lawv computers ntawm 1600 × 1200 daws teeb meem ( UXGA ) los yog siab dua xws li 2048 × 1536 QXGA yog hais tias lawv muaj qhov tsim nyog cov khoom. Lwm yam muaj hom phiaj muaj oversize yam zoo li 1400 × 1050 SXGA + thiab dav yam zoo li 1280 × 800 WXGA , 1440 × 900 WXGA + , 1680 × 1050 WSXGA + , thiab 1920 × 1200 WUXGA ; saib ua rau 720p thiab 1080p txheem kuj tsis txawv cov tsev tawm thiab kev ua si video players, vim lub zoo meej screen compatibility nrog cov yeeb yam thiab kev ua si video tawm. Ib tug tshiab ntau-tshaj-HD daws teeb meem ntawm 2560 × 1600 WQXGA twb tso tawm nyob rau hauv 30-nti LCD saib nyob rau hauv 2007.

2010s [ edit ]

Raws li ntawm lub peb hlis ntuj 2012, 1366 × 768 yog lub feem ntau cov zaub daws teeb meem. [4]

Nyob rau hauv 2010, 27-nti LCD saib nrog rau cov 2560 × 1440-pixel daws teeb meem raug tso tawm los ntawm ntau yam manufacturers xws li kua, [5] thiab nyob rau hauv 2012, Kua qhia ib tug 2880 × 1800 zaub rau tus MacBook Pro . [6] Panels rau kev kawm, xws li kev kho mob siv thiab pa tsheb tswj, kev txhawb nqa uas yuav kho tau txog li 4096 × 2160 pixels. [7] [8] [9]

Common zaub uas yuav kho tau [ edit ]

Standard nam piv Dav (px) Qhov siab (px) % Ntawm Chav neeg siv (Lub peb hlis ntuj 2017) % Ntawm web neeg siv (Dec 2015)
CGA 4: 3 320 240

VGA 4: 3 640 480

SVGA 4: 3 800 600 n / a 0,60
WSVGA ~ 17: 10 1024 600 n / a 0,71
XGA 4: 3 1024 768 1,44 7,49
XGA + 4: 3 1152 864 n / a 0,52
WXGA 16: 9 1280 720 0,67 1,96
WXGA 5: 3 1280 768 0,30 0,78
WXGA 16:10 1280 800 1,46 6.12
SXGA 5: 4 1280 1024 3,72 5,94
HD ~ 16: 9 1360 768 2,73 2,39
HD ~ 16: 9 1366 768 23,26 30,05
WXGA + 16:10 1440 900 4,39 6,04
HD + 16: 9 1600 900 5,75 5.99
UXGA 4: 3 1600 1200 n / a n / a
WSXGA + 16:10 1680 1050 3,50 2.82
FHD 16: 9 1920 1080 45,26 13,69
WUXGA 16:10 1920 1200 1.18 1.19
WQHD 16: 9 2560 1440 n / a 1.10
WQXGA 16:10 2560 1600 1,98 n / a
4K UHD 16: 9 3840 2160 0,78 n / a
8 k UHD 16: 9 7680 4320 n / a n / a
lwm yam


1.83 9,23

Sau ntawv


Cov Chav neeg siv statistics tau sau los ntawm cov neeg siv ntawm tus Chav network nyob rau hauv nws cov kev kho vajtse daim ntawv ntsuam xyuas ntawm lub Kaum Ob Hlis 2015. [10]
Lub web neeg siv statistics tau sau los ntawm cov neeg tuaj saib rau peb vam websites, normalized dab geolocational kev tsis ncaj ncees, thaum lub sij hawm lub Kaum Ob Hlis 2015. [11]

Cov zauv yog tsis sawv cev ntawm lub computer cov neeg siv nyob rau hauv feem ntau.


Thaum ib tug computer zaub daws teeb meem yog muab siab tshaj lub cev screen daws teeb meem (haiv neeg daws teeb meem), ib txhia video tsav tsheb ua kom lub virtual screen scrollable tshaj lub cev screen li paub hais tias ib tug ob seem virtual desktop nrog nws viewport. Feem ntau cov LCD manufacturers tsis ua daim ntawv ntawm lub vaj huam sib luag txoj kev ib txwm daws teeb meem raws li kev ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv ib tug uas tsis yog-haiv neeg daws teeb meem nyob rau hauv LCDs yuav ua nyob rau hauv ib tug poorer duab, vim xa me nyuam rov ntawm pixels mus ua cov duab haum (thaum uas siv cov DVI) los yog tsis txaus zauv ntawm lub analog teeb liab (thaum uas siv cov VGA connector). Ob peb CRT manufacturers yuav hais ib co lus muaj tseeb haiv neeg daws teeb meem, vim hais tias CRTs yog analog nyob rau hauv qhov thiab yuav sib txawv lawv cov zaub los ntawm tsawg li 320 × 200 (emulation ntawm cov laus computers los yog kev ua si consoles) rau raws li high school raws li lub hauv board yuav cia, los yog cov duab yuav dhau ncauj lus kom ntxaws rau hauv lub tshuab nqus raj rau recreate (ie, analog plooj). Yog li, CRTs muab ib tug variability nyob rau hauv kev daws teeb meem uas tsau daws teeb meem LCDs yuav tsis muab.

Nyob rau hauv xyoo tsis ntev los lub 16: 9 nam piv tau ua ntau nyob rau hauv phau ntawv sau qhia. 1366 × 768 ( HD ) kuj nrov rau feem ntau phau ntau thiab tsawg pab, thaum 1600 × 900 (HD +) thiab 1920 × 1080 ( FHD ) yog muaj rau loj phau ntawv sau.

Raws li deb raws li cov cinematography yog kev txhawj xeeb, video daws teeb meem qauv nyob ntawm seb thawj rau tus ntas 'nam piv nyob rau hauv lub zaj duab xis Tshuag (uas yog feem ntau luam rau cov intermediate post-ntau lawm) thiab ces rau lub sij ntsiab lus' suav. Txawm hais tias muaj yog tsis yog ib tug cim txheej ntawm kev ntau thiab tsawg pab, nws yog ib yam muaj nyob rau hauv lub suab duab kev lag luam rau xa mus rau "n K" duab "zoo", qhov twg n yog ib tug (me me, feem ntau txawm) integer tooj uas translates rau hauv ib tug txheej ntawm tiag tiag uas yuav kho tau, nyob ntawm seb lub zaj duab xis hom . Raws li ib tug reference xav txog hais tias, rau ib tug 4: 3 (nyob ib ncig ntawm 1.33: 1) nam piv uas ib tug zaj duab xis ncej (tsis muaj teeb meem dab tsi yog nws hom) yog yuav tsum horizontally haum nyob rau hauv, n yog lub d ntawm 1024 xws li hais tias tus kab rov tav daws teeb meem yog raws nraim 1024 • n cov ntsiab lus. Piv txwv li, 2K siv daws teeb meem yog 2048 × 1536 pixels, whereas 4K siv daws teeb meem yog 4096 × 3072 pixels. Cuaj kaum, 2 K tej zaum kuj xa mus rau kho tau zoo li 2048 × 1556 (full-aperture), 2048 × 1152 ( HDTV , 16: 9 nam piv) los yog 2048 × 872 pixels ( Cinemascope , 2,35: 1 nam piv). Nws tseem yog nqi sau cia hais tias thaum ib tug ncej daws teeb meem tej zaum yuav, piv txwv li, 3: 2 (720 × 480 NTSC), uas yog tsis zoo li cas koj yuav pom on-screen (ie 4: 3 los yog 16: 9 nyob rau ntawm lub orientation ntawm lub lub pixels).

Evolution ntawm cov qauv [ edit ]

Nyob rau hauv cov duab no ntawm ib tug Commodore 64 startup screen, cov overscan cheeb tsam (lub sib zog-kob ciam teb) yuav tau NW nyuam qhuav pom thaum muaj nyob rau ntawm ib tug ib txwm TV.



A 640 × 200 zaub ua los ntawm ib tug saib (sab laug) thiab TV.

Muaj ntau tus kheej computers nkag tau rau hauv lub caij 1970s thiab 1980s tau tsim los siv TV receivers li lawv zaub pab kiag li lawm, ua rau cov uas yuav kho tau nyob rau hauv lub this vis qauv nyob rau hauv kev siv, xws NPAWG thiab NTSC . Duab ntau thiab tsawg pab tau feem ntau yog tas rau kom cov visibility ntawm tag nrho cov pixels nyob rau hauv lub loj TV qauv thiab cov ntau yam ntawm TV poob lawm uas ua cov nqi ntawm cov tshaj scan. Lub sij drawable duab cheeb tsam yog, yog li ntawd, dog dig me dua cov tag nrho screen, thiab feem ntau yog surrounded los ntawm ib tug zoo li qub-dawb lias ciam teb (saib duab mus rau sab xis). Tsis tas li ntawd, lub interlace PP feem ntau yog omitted nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav muab ntau stability hauv daim duab, zoo halving ntsug daws teeb meem nyob rau hauv kev kawm. 160 × 200, 320 × 200 thiab 640 × 200 nyob rau hauv NTSC twb kuj ntau yuav kho tau nyob rau hauv lub era (224, 240 los yog 256 scanlines kuj ntau). Nyob rau hauv lub IBM PC ntiaj teb no, cov uas yuav kho tau tuaj yuav tsum tau siv los ntawm 16-xim EGA video phaib.

Ib tug ntawm cov drawbacks ntawm kev siv ib tug classic TV yog hais tias lub computer zaub daws teeb meem yog siab tshaj lub TV yuav txiav suab ntawm. Chroma daws teeb meem rau NTSC / NPAWG televisions yog bandwidth-tas rau ib tug tshaj plaws 1.5 megahertz, los yog kwv yees li 160 pixels dav, uas coj mus rau blurring ntawm cov xim rau 320- los yog 640-wide Pib ntsais koj teeb, thiab ua ntawv nyeem yooj yim rau kev nyeem ntawv (saib daim duab thib ob rau sab xis). Muaj ntau cov neeg siv kho dua-zoo televisions nrog S-Video los yog RGBI inputs uas pab tshem tawm Chroma plooj thiab tsim dua kom sau zoo qhia. Lub earliest, tus nqi qis tshaj tshuaj rau qhov Chroma teeb meem muaj nyob rau hauv lub Atari 2600 Video Computer System thiab cov kua II + , ob qho tib si ntawm cov uas muaj cov kev xaiv kom lov tes taw rau cov xim thiab saib ib tug legacy dub-thiab-dawb lub teeb liab. Nyob rau Commodore 64, lub GEOS mirrored lub Mac OS txoj kev siv dub-thiab-dawb los txhim kho readability.


Ib tug 4096-xim Ham qhaib duab uas ua los ntawm ib tug Amiga (1989)


16-xim (saum) thiab 256-xim (hauv qab) hnyav dluab los ntawm ib tug 1980s VGA card. Dithering yog siv los mus kov yeej cov xim cov kev txwv.


Lub 640 × 400i daws teeb meem (720 × 480i nrog ciam teb rau lwm xiam oob qhab) twb xub qhia los ntawm tsev computers xws li cov Commodore Amiga thiab, tom qab ntawd, Atari Liaj. Cov computers siv interlace rau boost lub siab tshaj plaws ntsug daws teeb meem. Cov hom tsuas haum rau graphics los yog gaming, raws li cov flickering interlace ua nyeem ntawv nyob rau hauv lo lus processor, database, los yog spreadsheet software yooj yim. (Niaj hnub nimno kev ua si consoles daws tau qhov teeb meem los ntawm pre-filtering lub 480i video mus rau ib tug txo kev daws teeb meem. Piv txwv li, zaum kawg Fantasy XII suffers los ntawm flicker thaum lub lim yog muab tua, tab sis stabilizes ib zaug filtering yog rov qab los. Qhov computers ntawm lub 1980s Corporate txaus hwj chim khiav zoo xws li cov filtering software.)

Qhov kom zoo dua ntawm ib tug 720 × 480i overscanned computer yog ib qho yooj yim interface nrog qhaib TV ntau lawm, ua rau txoj kev loj hlob ntawm Newtek lub Video lub ci qhob cij . Qhov no ntaus ntawv tso cai Amigas yuav tsum tau siv rau CGI creation nyob rau hauv ntau yam xov xwm departments (piv txwv li: huab cua overlays), ua yeeb yam kev pab cuam xws li NBC tus seaQuest , WB tus Babylon 5 , thiab thaum ntxov computer-generated animation los ntawm Disney rau Tus me Mermaid , Kev zoo nkauj thiab cov tsiaj nyaum , thiab Aladdin .

Nyob rau hauv lub PC ntiaj teb no, lub IBM PS / 2 VGA (multi-xim) on-board graphics chips siv ib tug uas tsis yog-sib qhaib (hnyav) 640 × 480 × 16 xim daws teeb meem uas yog yooj yim rau kev nyeem ntawv thiab li pab tau ntau rau chav ua hauj lwm. Nws yog tus txheej txheem daws teeb meem los ntawm 1990 mus nyob ib ncig ntawm 1996. [ citation ntxiv ] Tus txheem daws teeb meem tau 800x600 kom txog rau thaum nyob ib ncig ntawm 2000. Microsoft lub qhov rais XP , tso tawm nyob rau hauv 2001, yog tsim los khiav ntawm 800 × 600 yam tsawg kawg nkaus, txawm hais tias nws yuav tau mus xaiv tus thawj 640 × 480 nyob rau hauv lub Advanced tej chaw qhov rais.

Cov kev pab tsim ntsi xws li cov laus kho vajtse xws li Atari, Sega, los yog Nintendo ua si consoles (emulators) thaum uas txuas mus rau multiscan CRTs, routinely siv ntau tsawg uas yuav kho tau, xws li 160 × 200 los yog 320 × 400 rau ntau dua authenticity, tab sis yog lwm yam emulators tau coj kom zoo dua ntawm pixelation paub rau lub vajvoog, square, daim duab peb sab, thiab lwm yam duab nta rau ib tug tsawg kev daws teeb meem rau ib tug ntau scaled vector rendering.

Feem ntau siv [ edit ]

Lub daim ntawv teev cov ntau zaub uas yuav kho tau tsab xov xwm teev cov feem ntau siv zaub uas yuav kho tau rau computer graphics, TV, films, thiab video conferencing.