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Intel Graphics Technology Keeb Kwm 1990s

Mar 12, 2019

Hauv xyoo 1991, S3 Graphics tau pib rau S3 86C911, uas nws tus neeg tsim lub npe hu ua Porsche 911 raws li qhov qhia txog qhov kev nce qib nws tau cog lus tseg. Tus 86C911 spawned ib lub party ntawm imitators: los ntawm 1995, tag nrho cov loj PC graphics chip makers tau ntxiv 2D acceleration kev them nyiaj yug rau lawv tej daim. Los ntawm lub sij hawm no, qhov kev tsim kho qhov chaw khiav dej num muaj qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm cov kev ua lag luam ntawm cov qauv hauv tshuab hluav taws xob, thiab cov tshuab coprocessors ntawd tawm ntawm lub lag luam PC.


Thoob plaws hauv lub xyoo 1990, 2D GUI acceleration continued evolve. Raws li kev tsim muaj peev xwm ua tau zoo tuaj, yog li ua rau theem kev sib tos ntawm cov duab chips. Lwm daim ntawv thov programming interfaces (APIs) tuaj txog ntau yam haujlwm, xws li Microsoft's WinG graphics qiv rau lub qhov rais 3.x, thiab lawv DirectDraw interface rau kho vajtse acceleration ntawm 2D ua si hauv Windows 95 thiab tom qab.


Nyob rau hauv thaum ntxov- thiab nruab nrab thaum xyoo 1990, cov duab 3D-real-time yog qhov tshwm sim hauv kev arcade, computer thiab console ua si, uas tau ua rau pej xeem coob xav tau cov cuab yeej 3D-accelerated. Thaum ntxov piv txwv ntawm kev lag luam loj 3D 3D graphics yuav pom muaj nyob hauv cov kab kos hauv daim duab arcade xws li Sega Model 1, Namco System 22, thiab Sega Model 2, thiab kev ua si thib 5 nrog cov Saturn, PlayStation thiab Nintendo 64. Arcade systems xws li Sega Model 2 thiab Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator nyob rau xyoo 1993 tau muaj peev xim kho T & L (hloov, clipping, thiab teeb pom kev) xyoo ua ntej yuav tshwm sim hauv cov neeg siv graphics. Qee lub tshuab siv DSPs kom hloov tau cov kev pauv hloov. Fujitsu, uas ua hauj lwm hauv Sega Model 2 arcade system, pib ua hauj lwm rau kev sib hloov T & L mus rau hauv ib qho LSI nkaus xwb rau kev siv hauv tsev computer hauv xyoo 1995; Fujitsu Pinolite, thawj 3D geometry processor rau tus kheej computers, tso tawm hauv 1997. Cov thawj Hardware T & L GPU nyob rau hauv tsev video game consoles yog lub Nintendo 64's Reality Coprocessor, tso tawm rau 1996. Xyoo 1997, Mitsubishi tso tawm 3Dpro / 2MP, ib siab featured GPU muaj peev xwm hloov tau thiab teeb pom kev zoo, rau cov haujlwm workstations thiab Windows NT desktops; ATi siv nws rau lawv daim npav FireGL 4000, tso tawm rau 1997.


Nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb PC, notable ua tsis tau tejyam ua ntej rau low-cost 3D graphics chips yog cov S3 ViRGE, ATI npau taws, thiab Matrox Mystique. Cov chips no yeej tseem tshiab dhau los-2D accelerators nrog 3D nta bolted rau. Muaj ntau tus neeg txawm tias tus pin-tshaj nrog cov ua ntej lawm-tiam chips tau yooj yim ntawm kev siv thiab tsawg tus nqi. Pib, kev ua tau zoo 3D graphics tau ua nrog cov ntawv sib txuam sib luag rau kev ua haujlwm kom accelerating 3D functions (thiab tsis muaj 2D GUI acceleration nkaus) xws li PowerVR thiab 3dfx Voodoo. Txawm li cas los, raws li kev siv tshuab txuas mus ntxiv, video, 2D GUI acceleration thiab 3D functionality tau tag nrho kev nkag mus rau hauv ib lub nti. Kev Rendition's Verite chipsets yog cov thawj ua qhov zoo txaus kom tsim nyog ntawm kev ceeb toom. Nyob rau xyoo 1997, Kev Rendition tau nqis tes ntxiv los ntawm kev koom tes nrog Hercules thiab Fujitsu ntawm "Thriller Conspiracy" uas ua ke nrog Fujitsu FXG-1 Pinolite Geometry processor nrog Vérité V2200 tub ntxhais los tsim ib daim duab nrog T & L engine xyoo ua ntej Nvidia GeForce 256. Daim npav no, tsim los txo qhov kev tso rau hauv qhov system qhov CPU, tsis ua rau kev lag luam.


OpenGL nyob rau thaum ntxov '90s raws li ib tug graphical graphics API, tab sis thaum chiv keeb los ntawm kev teeb meem kev kawm uas tau tso cai rau Glide API nqis rau hauv thiab ua ib qho kev quab yuam ntawm lub PC hauv lig' 90s. Txawm li cas los xij, cov teeb meem tau nrawm dua thiab lub Glide API poob los ntawm txoj kev. Software siv ntawm OpenGL tau tshwm sim thaum lub sij hawm no, txawm hais tias tus cawv ntawm OpenGL nws thiaj li ua rau kev kho mob thoob plaws. Txij lub sij hawm, ib qho kev sib haum xeeb tau tshwm sim ntawm cov nta muaj nyob rau hauv kev kho vaj tse thiab cov neeg qhib hauv OpenGL. DirectX los ua qhov nrov ntawm qhov kev ua si hauv qhov kev ua si thaum lub sijhawm 90s. Tsis zoo li OpenGL, Microsoft xav kom muab kev pabcuam nruj ib-rau-ib ntawm kev kho vajtse. Lub hom phiaj ua DirectX tsawg dua li ib lub standalone graphics API thawj zaug, txij li ntau GPUs muab lawv tus kheej nta, uas cov ntawv OpenGL uas twb muaj lawm twb tau txais txiaj ntsig los ntawm, tawm hauv DirectX ntau tiam ib zaug. (Xyuas: Sib piv ntawm OpenGL thiab Direct3D.)


Sij hawm dhau los, Microsoft pib ua hauj lwm ntau nrog cov neeg tsim kho vajtse, thiab pib ua kom tiav ntawm DirectX rau coincide nrog cov kev txhawb nqa cov cuab yeej graphics. Direct3D 5.0 yog tus thawj version ntawm lub qhov kev kawm siab burgeoning mus rau qhov kev sib tw thoob plaws rau hauv kev ua lag luam, thiab nws ncaj qha nrog ntau ntau tshaj-kev kho tshwj xeeb, feem ntau ntawm cov ntawv qiv qis, thaum OpenGL kho kom muaj zog tom qab. Direct3D 7.0 muab kev txhawb rau kev hloov kho thiab kho hluav taws xob (T & L) rau Direct3D, thaum OpenGL muaj qhov muaj peev xwm tau tshwm sim los ntawm nws cov kev pib. 3D accelerator phaib dhau mus dhau yooj yooj yim rasterizers mus ntxiv lwm qhov tseem ceeb kho vajtse rau qhov 3D rendering pipeline. Lub Nvidia GeForce 256 (tseem hu ua NV10) yog thawj tus neeg siv khoom daim ntawv tso tawm hauv kev ua lag luam nrog hardware-accelerated T & L, thaum kev cob qha 3D daim ntawv no twb muaj peev xwm ua tau. Kho vajtse txauv thiab teeb pom kev zoo, ob qho tib si uas twb tau tsim los ntawm OpenGL, tuaj rau cov neeg siv khoom-kho vajtse hauv lub 90s thiab teeb qhov nqis tshaj rau tom qab pixel shader thiab vertex shader units uas tau deb ntau yooj yim dua thiab cov programable.