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LCD tso txujci

Jul 02, 2018

LCD tso txujci

  1. Lub cev thiab kho qhov muag pom ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua

2. Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua

3. Cov duab LCD

4, tshuab kev tsav tsheb LCD

5, kev xaiv thiab kev kho ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua

   1. Lub cev thiab kho qhov muag pom ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua

Lub tswvyim thiab kev faib tawm ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua

Lub cev muaj zog ntawm cov kua qaub

Tsom xam ntawm cov khoom siv kho qhov muag ntawm cov kua qaub (* * * * * *)

Kev kho ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules

Electro-optic teb ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua (* *)

  Lub tswvyim thiab kev faib tawm ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua

1) lub tswvyim ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua:

                                              

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Nws yog qhov sib txawv rau cov nplaim thiab dej. Hauv cov ntsiab lus yooj yooj yim, cov kua muaj kua muaj zog hauv cov xaum thiab cov kua dej. Ntawm qhov one hand, nws muaj kua thiab ua raws li lub kua. Ntawm qhov tod tes, nws muaj cov anisotropy ntawm cov siv lead ua.

                                                                           

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      2) qhov kev faib tawm cov kua muaj kua:

Los ntawm lub cev nqaij daim tawv ntawm cov kab mob thiab kev tshwm sim, cov kua pleev nplaum yuav ua kom muaj kev sib txawv hauv ob pawg: cov kua thermotropic kua thiab cov kua lyotropic kua crystals.
Cov kua siv thermotropic kua: thermotropic kua Crystal yog dav siv nyob rau hauv lub tshav pob ntawm cov khoom. Cov kua siv ua kua thermotropic yog ib qho anisotropic yaj hauv ib qho chaw kub thaum lub kua siv lead ua kom sov. Cov thermotropic kua Crystal tau muab faib ua peb pawg: nematic kua siv lead ua, nyob ze cov khoom siv lead ua kua thiab cov cholesteric kua siv lead ua, vim yog txawv ntawm lub xeev ntawm cov khoom xaj maum.

Nematic kua siv lead ua:
Nws cov lwg me me yog muab tso rau hauv cov khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg thiab tuaj yeem xaub, nce, sab laug thiab sab xis. Nws muaj cov cuab yeej hluav taws xob thiab kho qhov muag anisotropy, thiab nws cov viscosity yog me me, yog li cov kua nematic ua kua yog qhov feem ntau siv cov kua siv lead ua los ntawm tam sim no.

Nyob ze cov kua qaub kua txig ua kua:
Nws yog tsim los ntawm pas nrig nyiam lossis strip molecules, thiab cov molecules raug teem rau hauv txheej. Qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab ntawm cov molecules nyob hauv txheej yog qhov sib luag rau ib leeg. Cov kev taw qhia yuav ua perpendicular mus rau txheej thiab tuaj yeem siv tau rau txheej. Txoj hauj lwm ntawm lub molecular centroid yog disordered nyob rau hauv txheej. Nws tuaj yeem pub dawb thiab txav mus tau zoo, tab sis cov viscosity loj loj thiab lub tshuab tsis yooj yim rau tig, qhov ntawd yog, qhov lus teb ceev qeeb thiab feem ntau tsis zoo. Ua ib pawg saib.

Tshuaj Crystalic Crystal:
Vim tias nws lub npe los ntawm cov derivatives ntawm cov roj cholesterol, cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules cov plag, npaj rau hauv cov txheej, cov kab mob ntawm cov kab mob sib kis mus rau cov leeg, qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab xev ntawm lub cev yog qhov sib luag rau lub dav hlau, thiab qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab qhov sib txawv ntawm cov khaubncaws sab nraud yog hloov me ntsis, thiab ib lub qauv khov yog npaj raws li kev coj ua ntawm txheej txheem.
Tshuaj Crystalic Crystal yog cov tseem ceeb hauv kev siv tshuab. Nws yog siv nyob rau hauv ntau ntawm additives rau nematic kua Crystal. Nws tuaj yeem ua rau cov kua siv lead ua los ua qhov kev sib tsoo ntawm 180o thiab 270o raws li cov kua dej ua kua siv, thiab ua rau STN zaub.

Lyotropic kua Crystal:
Nws yog kua crystalline khoom tsim los ntawm dissolving solute rau hauv ib qho hnyav. Xab npum dej yog cov kua siv ua kua lyotropic.
Lyotropic kua crystals tau muab faib rau cov tsiaj txhu thiab cov kab mob, ze rau cov metabolism, plab zom, absorption, kev xaav thiab kev xa cov ntaub ntawv xa mus rau hauv lub neej txoj kev, thiab tau ua tib zoo saib rau hauv kev ua haujlwm ntawm biological engineering, lub neej, kev kho mob thiab kev noj qab haus huv thiab khoom lub neej.
Lyotropic kua Crystal tsis tau muab tso rau hauv cov khoom siv cuab yeej tam sim no.

§2 Lub cev muaj zog ntawm cov kua nplaum ua kua

1, txiav txim siab ntawm cov siv lead ua kua
Nematic cov kua kua dej yog cov cylindrical symmetry. Ntawd yog, muaj ib qho axis hauv lub cev. Peb hu lub axis mus tib seem ntawm lub axis (qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab ntawm lub molecule) raws li lub ntsiab ntawm lub molecule, thaum lub caij hloov ntawm tus pas nrig xws li kua siv lead ua kua molecules nyhav kom ua mus raws li kev qhia ntawm ntxaiv.
Txhawm rau piav qhia txog cov qauv ntawm txhua lub qauv ntawm cov khoom siv ua kua nematic ua ib qho tseem ceeb rau cov ntxaiv, peb qhia ib qho parameter S, uas yog muaj feem xyuam rau cov khoom siv lead ua kua, qhov kub, thiab muaj tus cwj pwm tsis zoo coefficient, uas yog, thaum kub nce, qhov kev txiav txim parameter txo, thiab cov zaub zoo ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua deg.

      

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S = 0 ntawm cov kua qaub isotropic, S = 1 ntawm cov khoom siv lead ua zoo tagnrho
Qhov kev ntsuas S ntawm cov kua siv lead ua yog feem ntau ntawm 0.3 thiab 0.8.

2, lub anisotropy ntawm kua Crystal
Cov lwg me me ntawm cov kua qaub feem ntau yog pas qws zoo li cov roj ntsha. Vim hais tias ntawm cov sib txawv molecular pawg uas txuas los ntawm lub taub hau thiab kev twv, cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules muaj cov khoom sib txawv hauv ob qho kev qhia ntawm qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab thiab lub luv thooj. Cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog cov roj ntsha molecules. Vim hais tias ntawm lub zog ntawm lub cev, cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules ua ke, thiab qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab ntawm cov molecules yog ib txwm sib. Nyob rau hauv parallel los yog nrog ib tug nyiam dua kev coj, chav tsev vector ntawm qhov nruab nrab ntawm qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab ntawm cov kua qaub tsim kua tshuaj yog hu ua tus thawj coj ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua.
Lub cev nqaij daim tawv ua raws li qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab thiab cov lus qhia luv luv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules sib txawv, uas yog qhov essence ntawm cov anisotropy kua muaj zog.

   

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(1) dielectric anisotropy
Lub dielectric tsis tu ncua qhia qhov degree ntawm dielectric polarization nyob rau hauv qhov kev txiav txim ntawm lub teb hluav taws xob, thiab qhov nqi ntawm lub dielectric yuav tsis zoo. Raws li txoj kev sim, nws pom tau tias qhov ntev ntawm txoj hnyuv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog parallel los yog perpendicular mus rau lub caij ncov qaum teb ntawm hluav taws xob (qhov kev taw qhia ntawm lub teb hluav taws xob).
Peb hu rau chav kawm ntawm kua crystals nrog lub dipole lub sijhawm uas tig mus rau molecular axis raws li cov kua siv ua kua (NP); cov kua siv lead ua kua rau qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab qes ntawm molecule yog hu ua cov kua siv ua kua tsis zoo (Nn). Qhov electrooptic teebmeem ntawm ob hom kua ntxhuav muaj ntau yog sib txawv. Hauv feem ntau ntawm cov npo LCD, peb ntxiv cov kua nplaum zoo.

(2) resistivity thiab hluav taws xob conductivity
Qhov siab tshaj ntawm cov resistivity ntawm cov kua crystals feem ntau yog 108 ~ 1012 ohm cm, uas yog ze rau ciam ntawm semiconductor thiab insulator. Tus inverse ntawm lub resistivity yog lub conductivity, thiab lub resistivity yog feem ntau siv raws li ib tug paub nqi ntawm purity ntawm kua siv lead ua kua. Qhov me me ntawm impurity yog qhia raws li tus impurity ion, uas yog, purity ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua yog pluag. Feem ntau, thaum p <1010 omega="" cm,="" cov="" qauv="" siv="" ntawm="" cov="" kua="" siv="" ua="" kua="" yuav="" raug="" rhuav="" tshem="" los="" ntawm="" cov="" hluav="" taws="" xob="" ntawm="" cov="" hluav="" taws="" xob="" hauv="" cov="" hluav="" taws="" xob="" sab="" nraud,="" kom="" txog="" thaum="" cov="" kua="" siv="" lead="" ua="" kua="">
Qhov muaj peev xwm ua rau cov kua muaj kua ntxhiab kuj yog ib qho tseem ceeb, thiab muaj kev sib txig sib txig sib luag raws li lub cuab yeej ntawm lub cev.

(3) anisotropy ntawm optical refractive index
Cov anisotropy ntawm kev kho qhov muag tsis pom kev ncaj qha ncaj qha rau cov khoom siv kho qhov muag ntawm cov kua siv ua kua, xws li hloov lub xeev lub thawv los sis kev tswj qhov teeb meem, uas yuav muaj kev cuam tshuam los sis xa tawm qhov teeb meem sib txuas mus rau sab laug lossis txoj kev kiv thiab . Nws plays lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb nyob rau hauv cov hluav taws xob hauv hluav taws xob ntawm cov kua siv ua kua.

(4) lub cev coefficient
Cov coefficient viscosity kuj yog anisotropic, uas ncaj qha rau cov lus teb ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua, thiab yog ib qho tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm cov khoom siv ua kua ua kua.

3, qhov kev xav ntawm cov kua siv ua kua
Hauv kev ntsuam xyuas ntawm lub zog ntawm lub cev muaj kua, cov cwj pwm ntawm ib qho khoom siv ntawm cov dej siv lead ua kua raug suav tias tsis suav, thiab cov txheej txheem ua kua dej ua rau poob siab tias kev nruam nrab. Qhov kev cob qhia vector yuav hloov nyob rau sab nraud, thiab lub phiaj xwm vector yog rov qab mus rau nws lub xeev qub tom qab sab nraud tawm. Cov txheej txheem no yuav xav txog cov kua siv lead ua kom sib npaug rau ib qho tseem ceeb. Lub cev deformation ntawm qhov txuas ntxiv thiab cov nyhuv ntawm sab nraud quab yuam yog zoo li lub caij nplooj ntoos hlav. Nws tau sau tseg tias cov deformation yuav siv sij hawm ib lub sij hawm kom tiav, uas ua rau lub tswv yim ntawm lub sij hawm teb.

Cov kev tshawb kawm theoretical ntawm rearrangement ntawm kua siv lead ua kua molecules nyob rau hauv hluav taws xob yog qhov nyuaj.

                                                     

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Peb paub hais tias me me lub zog dawb ntawm molecules yog, ntau ruaj ntseg lub cev nqaij daim tawv ntawm molecules yog.
Los ntawm lub xeem lub sij hawm, nws paub tias thaum lub teb hluav taws xob ntawm cov kua hluav taws xob muaj txiaj ntsim ntawm> 0 siv rau ib qho hluav taws xob saum toj no lub zog, thiaj li txo qis lub zog dawb, cov kua qaub (crystal) ntev qis (taw vector) muab hloov mus rau hauv lub teb chaws hluav taws xob.
Yuav kom txo tau lub zog dawb, qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab ua kua siv lead ua kua molecules (directing vector) yuav rov ua dua rau cov hluav taws xob E thaum lub teb hluav taws xob ntawm cov kua dej ua tsis zoo ntawm <0 raug="" rau="" hauv="" ib="" qho="" hluav="" taws="" xob="" ntawm="" ntau="" tshaj="" ib="">

Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm feem ntau ntawm cov khoom siv lead ua kua yog raws li txoj kev xav tau hais los saum toj no: qhov kev coj ua ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules hloov nyob rau sab nraud, thiab cuam tshuam rau cov khoom siv qhov muag ntawm cov kua siv lead ua,

   

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Tom qab siv hluav taws xob ua kua fais fab, qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab xauv rov tuaj rau ntawm lub tshuab hluav taws xob.

                                                                              

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Tom qab cov kua dej ua siv tsis pom zoo siv fais fab, qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab xauv cov txheej txheem ntawm lub tshuab hluav taws xob rov ua dua rau cov hluav taws xob.

§3 Kev sojntsuam ntawm cov khoom siv kho qhov muag ntawm kua muaju (* * * * * *)

    1, polarization ntawm lub teeb
Optical vector
Hauv kev tshawb nrhav electromagnetic yoj, Maxwell ntsiab lus hais tias lub electromagnetic yoj yog ib qho kev khiav nkaum thiab nws yog los ntawm ob ntsug kev vibration vectors, lub zog ntawm lub teb hluav taws xob E thiab kev siv ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm H. Vim hais tias tib neeg paub tias lub teeb yog ib lub transverse nthwv los ntawm lub thawv ntawm lub teeb, thiab ntsuas tus nqi ntawm cov teeb ntawm lub teeb sib raug rau qhov theoretical xam ntawm tus kab mob electromagnetic yoj tshaj tawm, yog li ntawd lub teeb pom tseeb yog ib hom electromagnetic yoj. Muaj ntau cov kev sim ua tau pom tias qhov kev siv ntawm cov duab ci thiab kev ua haujlwm hauv lub teeb yoj suab yog lub tebchaw fais fab E, E ces yog lub teeb vector, thiab peb hu rau lub zog ntawm E li lub teeb ntawm kev sib tw, thiab cov kev taw qhia ntawm lub teeb vector E yog qhov kev coj ntawm lub teeb lub zog.

Ntuj kaj:
Lub teeb uas tawm los ntawm ib qho chaw atom lossis molecule ntawm ib lub sij hawm yog keeb kwm lub teeb nthwv dej uas muaj lub meej meej kev tswj, tab sis lub teeb pom kev li niaj zaus yog ib qho txiaj ntsig ntawm kev siv atomic emission, uas yog ib qho kev hloov ceev thiab ua tsis raws cai. Yog li ntawd, lub teeb vector ntawm txhua tus yoj kem yuav tsum muab faib rau txhua tus neeg tau pom. Qhov nruab nrab, lub teeb vector yog mus rau lub teeb. Qhov kev qhia ntawm kev sib txuas lus yog sib npaug zos, thiab tsis muaj kev taw qhia yog ntau tshaj li lwm cov lus qhia. No lub teeb no hu ua ntuj kaj.
Lub teeb ci hloov thaum nws qhia, sib tsho los yog kis los ntawm tej lub thawv. Piv txwv li, tshav ntuj yog lub teeb ci, tiam sis nws yog ib feem ntawm polarized tom qab diffusing los ntawm lub ntuj. Qee cov thawv yas hauv chav tsev, xws li cassette, tshwm hauv ib cov ces kaum, uas yog tshwm sim ntawm lub teeb taws polarized.

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Decomposition ntawm ntuj lub teeb:
Hauv ntuj lub teeb, qhov kev kho qhov muag vector ntawm txhua qhov kev taw qhia tuaj yeem tsim ua ob sab hauv qhov kev taw qhia ntsug, thiab nws yog pom tseeb tias lub teeb ci ntuj tau qhia los ntawm kev co ntawm ob txoj kev qhia ntawm kev sib npaug amplitude.
Nws yuav tsum tau taw qhia tias, vim muaj teeb meem ntawm qhov teeb meem nyob rau hauv qhov kaj, tsis muaj qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov ob lub teeb ntsig txog kev vibrations, tiam sis nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb uas yuav tsum nco ntsoov tias ob qho tib si kev kho qhov muag tsis muaj peev xwm muab coj los ua ib qho kev ruaj khov polarized lub teeb, thiab nws yog pom tseeb hais tias qhov siv ntawm ob feem ntsug kev vibrations yog ib nrab ntawm lub ntuj tsim.
Yog tias muaj ib txoj hauv kev yuav tshem tau ib qho ntawm ob lub vibrations, ib txoj kab ntawm lub rooj sib pauv polarized tau. Yog tias tsuas yog ib qho ntawm ib qho ntawm ob lub vibrations thiaj li raug tshem tawm, nws yog hu ua ib nrab lub teeb ntsuab.

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    Sib pauv txoj sia
Tawm lub qhov muag tuaj: yog tias qhov muag kho vibrate tsuas yog nyob hauv ib lub dav hlau sab hauv lub dav hlau, qhov teeb no hu ua linear polarized light, kuj hu ua qhov sib txawv ntawm lub teeb ntsuab los sis lub teeb puav. Lub dav hlau ntawm lub dav hlau kho qhov muag thiab qhov kev qhia tawm ntawm lub teeb tawm ntawm lub teeb lub cev yog hu ua vibration nto, thiab lub vibration nto ntawm lub teeb tawm ntawm lub teeb lub cev yog tsau.

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  Ib feem ntawm ib lub teeb ntsuab:
Qhov no yog lub teeb nyob rau ntawm lub teeb ntsuab thiab lub teeb ci. Nyob rau hauv lub dav hlau mus rau ntawm lub teeb ci, lub vibrations nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov lus qhia yog tag nrho, tab sis lawv amplitude tsis sib npaug.
Nws yog tsim nyog teev tias tsis muaj qhov sib txuas ntawm cov vibrational vectors ntawm lub teeb nyob rau qhov sib pauv, uas sib raug mus rau ib nrab ntawm lub teeb ntsuab, thiab qee zaus kab taws teeb lub rooj sib txawv yog qhov sib txawv ntawm lub rooj sib tham.

Vos lub teeb thiab lub teeb ntsuab elliptic:
Cov yam ntxwv ntawm ob hom ntawm lub teeb yog nyob rau hauv ib lub dav hlau mus ncaj nraim mus rau kev coj ua ntawm lub teeb tawm. Lub teeb vector yog tig ntawm qee zaus (sab laug lossis sab xis). Yog hais tias txoj kev ntawm lub teeb vector yog lub voj voog, lub teeb yog hu ua lub hnub ci qhov ci tuaj; yog hais tias txoj kev ntawm qhov kawg taw tes ntawm lub teeb vector yog ib qho ellipse, lub teeb hu ua elliptically polarized lub teeb.

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Polarizer thiab deflector
Tus txheej txheem ntawm hloov lub teeb ci mus rau hauv txoj kev ntxhib ntxoo (polarized light) yog hu ua polarization. Qhov kho qhov muag tau siv rau qhov kev hloov no hu ua polarizer.
Thaum ntuj lub teeb kis tau los ntawm tej yam muaju, cov ntaub ntawv ntawm kev siv ntawm cov siv lead ua los ntawm kev co ntawm ob qho kev sib koom nrog cov lus qhia sib txawv. Yog tias qhov kev vibration ntawm ib qho kev ua yuav ua rau tag nrho (los yog yuav luag tag nrho), thiab qhov kev nqus dej ntawm lwm cov kev taw qhia me ntsis (los yog tsis absorbed), ces qhov kev haum ntawm kev co yog tsim los ntawm cov siv lead ua. Tig lub cev tuaj yeem, qhov siv lead ua los ntawm cov cuab yeej no yog hu ua ob qho xim siv lead ua xim.
Cov kab mob kis tau los ntawm lub ncov qaum ntuj yog hu ua ib txoj kab ntawm lub cev. Nws tau sau tseg tias qhov pom ntawm txoj kev kaj yog ib qho kev taw qhia, thiab tsis yog ncaj nraim ncaj nraim.

Polarizer yuav tsis tsuas yog biased, tab sis kuj yuav siv tau los txiav txim seb qhov nqaj yog linearly polarized. Yog li polarizer yuav siv tau ua ib lub ncov qaumteb kom pom lub nqaj.
Vim tias nws yuav luag txaus siab rau lub teeb ntawm kev ua haujlwm nyob rau hauv ib lub tsheb, lub zog poob ntawm lub teeb tseem heev loj, uas yog ntau tshaj 50%, uas yog lub ntsiab tseem ceeb rau cov uas tsis tshua muaj cov kua siv ua kua.

2, Marius txoj cai

Ib nqaj ntawm qhov kaj (lub teeb ntawm lub teeb) kis tau rau ntawm lub thawv thiab hloov mus rau hauv ib lub teeb uas muaj qhov sib pauv, thiab tom qab ntawd los ntawm kev ntsuas, kev siv lub teeb tom qab tus ntes sib txawv nrog lub kaum sab xis ntawm txoj kab xev ntawm lub ntes, uas yog:

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13.png Nws yog lub kaum sab xis ntawm lub ncov qaum ntuj thiab lub teeb kis ntawm lub ncov qaum ntuj.

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Kev soj ntsuam: ntawm Marius txoj cai, nws paub tias thaum ob lub ncov qaum teb yog mus tib seem rau lub voj voog ntawm txoj kab xev, qhov kev sib kis zoo tshaj plaws; thaum lub voj voog ntawm ob lub ncov qaum xaib ntawm ob sab sib luag, qhov sib pauv ntawm qhov sib pauv yog xoom, thiab tsis muaj lub teeb ci tawm ntawm tus ntes. Lub sij hawm no tus ntes yog nyob rau hauv txoj hauj lwm kev ploj tuag, yog li qhov kev tswj xyuas dub thiab dawb yog pom tau hais.
Yog hais tias siv cov hluav taws xob sab nraud, cov khoom siv ua kua ntawm cov kua siv ua kua hloov ua rau lub thawv muaj xim hloov hauv cov kua siv ua kua, ces lub teeb ntes yuav tsim daim duab nrog cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov grey, uas yog lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm tus kho qhov muag ntawm cov npo LCD.

Vim li cas thiaj yuav tsum npo LCD ntxiv roj teeb?
Qhov no yog vim hais tias cov kua siv lead ua kua yuav ua rau lub rearrangement ntawm kua siv lead ua kua molecules tom qab siv cov hluav taws xob. Yuav kom qhov kev hloov no tshwm sim, kom pom, rau tib neeg lub qhov muag, los yog ua kom tau qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov sib txawv, yuav tsum tau siv lub ncov qaumteb, thiab qhov yuav tsum ua kom lub teeb ci tuaj yeem ua kom txo tau thiab qhov kaj yuav raug txo.

3, lub birefringence ntawm cov siv lead ua

Qee tus nplais, xws li cov kua nplaum, muaj qhov tshwj xeeb. Thaum lub teeb ntawm lub teeb yog qhov teeb meem rau cov khoom cua, ob kab qis ntawm cov zis yog tsim. Qhov tshwm sim no yog hu ua birefringence.
Qhov kev sim qhia tau hais tias ib qho ntawm ob kab teeb ntawm kev zes ua raws li txoj cai lij choj ntawm txoj cai. Qhov teeb ci no yog hu ua qhov teeb pom kev zoo, hu ua o teeb, tab sis lwm txoj nqaj ntawm txoj cai tsis ua raws li txoj cai ntawm kev zeem muag. Qhov teeb ci no yog hu ua lub teeb heev, lossis e lub teeb rau luv luv.

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Kom nkag siab ntxiv txog lub tswv yim ntawm qhov kaj thiab qhov txawv txav, peb tuaj yeem ua qhov kev sim ua hauv qab no:
Daim duab saum toj no kom meej meej reproduces txoj kev kho qhov muag ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo tib yam thiab lub teeb heev nyob rau hauv lub lead ua. Yog tias peb khaws lub teeb thiab qhov kev taw qhia ntawm qhov teeb meem beam invariable, ua li cas rau peb los hloov cov siv lead ua?
Nws pom tau tias qhov kev coj ntawm lub teeb nrig ntawm lub teeb nrig yog tas li thaum lub siv lead ua tig, thiab lub nrooj ntawm kev hloov ntawm txoj kev hloov ntawm kev sib hloov, uas qhia tau hais tias cov siv lead ua muaj qhov sib txawv ntawm cov teeb pom kev zoo rau lub teeb pom kev zoo thiab lub teeb ci heev, thiab qhov muag tsis pom kev ntawm qhov teeb pom kev zoo tib yam sib npaug zos nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov lus qhia hauv lub siv lead ua thiab qhov ceev ntawm lub teeb yog sib npaug, yog li txoj kev coj ntawm lub teeb ci tsis yog. Kev hloov, thiab lub teeb heev nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov lus qhia ntawm refractive index yog tsis sib npaug, qhov ceev ntawm lub teeb tsis sib npaug, yog li kev coj ntawm kev hloov ntawm lub teeb hloov.

Hauv kev sim saum toj no, thaum peb tig cov siv lead ua los ntawm ib qho kev coj, peb pom tias qhov kev coj ntawm txoj kev nrig ntawm qhov teeb pom kev zoo nrig nrog txoj kev coj ntawm txoj kev pom ntawm lub teeb heev. Peb hu qhov kev taw qhia qhov pom kev ntawm qhov siv lead ua qhov muag.
Nws yuav tsum raug sau tseg tias qhov pom kev axis nruab nrab yog tsuas yog ib qho kev qhia hauv qhov siv lead ua, tsis yog txoj kab txiav. Hauv qhov siv lead ua, txhua txoj kab ncaj nraim mus rau txoj kab saum toj no yog qhov pom kev ntawm qhov muag, thiab cov siv lead ua tsuas yog ib qho kev pom zoo yog hu ua uniaxial Crystal.

Tom ntej, peb yuav piav me ntsis cov khoom siv kho qhov muag ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua, feem ntau yog soj ntsuam cov ntsiab lus tawm ntawm linearly polarized lub teeb nyob rau hauv cov kua siv lead ua kua.
1. Thaum muaj teeb meem lub teeb raug linearly polarized (vibrating perpendicular mus rau daim ntawv saum npoo), lub nruab nrab yog kua siv lead ua kua. Yuav ua li cas lub teeb pom kev hauv lub Crystal?

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Peb paub hais tias o lub teeb thiab e teeb tsim los ntawm cov khoom ntawm lub teeb ci ntsa los ntawm yoj chips muaj polarized lub teeb perpendicular rau txhua tus nyob rau hauv ib qho kev coj mus rau kev coj mus rau kev coj ua ntawm qhov teeb meem lub teeb siv.
Thaum lub teeb ntsuab (o lossis E) yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm cov pob zeb wafer (tsis txhob xav tias ntuj lub teeb yuav muaj ib qho chaw sib luag, O thiab e lub teeb yuav raug sib cais), O Light thiab e light yog tsim, thiab qhov muab xam ntawm qhov siv lub teeb kuj ua raws li ntawm Marius txoj cai.

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Qhov kuv yog qhov siv ntawm qhov teeb meem polarized lub teeb, lub kaum sab xis ntawm qhov kev taw qhia ntawm qhov teeb meem polarized lub teeb thiab kev coj ntawm lub axis optical ntawm wafer.

Rau cov ntaub ntawv no, vim yog = 90o,
Yog li, tsuas yog ib lub teeb xwb tsis muaj lub teeb nyob rau hauv cov kua siv lead ua kua, thiab qhov kev coj ntawm lub teeb ntawm qhov pom kev yog qhov kev taw qhia ntawm qhov teeb meem ntawm lub teeb meem polarized, uas yog, qhov kev qhia tawm ntawm lub teeb nyob rau hauv cov xim ua kua dej yog tsis tu ncua, thiab kev siv ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo sib npaug zos rau qhov siv ntawm qhov xwm txheej polarized lub teeb.

2. Thaum qhov teeb meem ntawd lub teeb tawm hauv qhov teeb meem (lub vibration yog parallel rau daim ntawv), E thiab o lub teeb muaj nyob rau hauv cov kua siv lead ua kua, thiab cov kev taw qhia ntawm lub tswv yim ntawm lub teeb yog kev coj ntawm cov synthesis ntawm E thiab o.

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Nyob rau hauv kev, thaum lub siab ntawm lub teeb meem polarized lub teeb yog 90o nrog ntev lub axis ntawm lub kua siv lead ua kua molecule, nws yuav ua tau los ntawm Marius txoj cai.

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Qhov saum toj no qhia tau hais tias qhov teeb meem ntawm lub teeb pom kev (qhov kaj) qhov siab tshaj plaws, thiab qhov kev qhia ntawm kev siv hluav taws xob hauv cov kua ua kua yog qhov ruaj khov, thiab qhov kev taw qhia ntawm lub teeb vibration tas li, thiab lub teeb ntawm lub teeb heev (E ) yog xoom, raws li qhia sab xis.

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Txoj kev tsim molecular ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua thaum hluav taws xob ntxiv:

Vim hais tias kev ceev ntawm qhov teeb pom kev zoo tib yam (o teeb), nws cov kev taw qhia tseem mus rau qhov pom kev ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua, thiab qhov kev coj ntawm lub teeb pwg coj mus rau qhov pom ntawm lub teeb ci, yog thaum lub teeb meem ntawm lub teeb meem polarized rau cov kua Crystal lub thawv, kev taw qhia ntawm cov lus qhia ntawm lub teeb yog tib yam, thiab lub polarization ntawm lub teeb kuj yog tas mus li.

4, qhov tshwm sim ntawm kho qhov muag ntawm siv lead ua.

Nyob rau xyoo 1811, Arago pom tias thaum lub teeb tawm hauv qhov pom ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo ntawm cov ntxhuav ntawm cov quas ntim xws li quartz, txawm hais tias lub teeb kis tau tawm lub teeb tawm, lub vibration ntog tau tig los ntawm lub kaum sab nraud rau qhov vibration nto ntawm qhov xwm txheej. Cov phenomenon no yog hu ua phenomenon ntawm optical kev sib hloov, thiab cov tshuaj uas muaj peev xwm tsim qhov phenomenon ntawm optical kev sib hloov yog hu ua cov khoom muag qhov muag, uas yog hu ua tus yam ntxwv ntawm no phenomenon. Kev kho qhov muag.
Cov kev sim no kuj qhia tau hais tias txoj kev sib hloov ntawm qhov kev sib raug zoo ntawm lub cev yog kev coj thiab pom nyob rau hauv lub teeb ntawm lub teeb, xws li txoj cai-tso cai uas tig xuab moos nyob rau hauv cov kev qhia ntawm clockwise, thiab qhov zoo dua hu ua cov khoom siv sab laug.

Nyob rau hauv tej yam mob, kua siv ua kua kuj muaj ib qho kev hloov ua piv txwv, thiab cov nematic kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog nyob rau hauv ib tug ntev pas duab puab thiab raug teeb tsa nyob rau hauv parallel nyob rau hauv ib txwm tej yam kev mob. Tab sis yog tias muaj txheej txheem tshwj xeeb yog saws, thawj txheej txheem ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog teem rau hauv txoj kev sib tw, yog li ua qhov kev sib tw tig, qhov ntawd yog, thaum cov kua siv lead ua tsis ntxiv, lub hwjchim ntxiv. Nyob rau sab nraud, cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules raug hloov thiab cov kev hloov tig qhov muag. Qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov sib ntxiv ntawm no thiab cov hluav taws xob tsis tsim nyog siv los ua qhov khoom.

5, txoj kab teeb ci polarized propagating nyob rau hauv cov kua siv ua kua nematic

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Ib qho me me ntawm cov khoom siv ua qhov muag tau ntxiv rau lub khob nematic kua, los yog ob qhov chaw hauv qab ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua raug npaj ua cov lej raug molecules, thiab kev vibration kev taw qhia ntawm kab kab taws polarized yog nyob hauv tib lub dav hlau thiab mus tib seem rau cov kev tswj vector ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules nyob rau sab nrauv, yog li qhov teeb meem ntawm lub suab (pitch) tuaj yeem tau, raws li pom nyob rau sab laug.

Thaum lub vibration ntawm qhov teeb meem ntawm lub teeb tau tsim nrog ntev ntawm txoj kab ntawm cov kua siv lead ua molecular directing n ntawm lub davhlau dav hlau, qhov nplawm ntub raug rho tawm haujlwm hauv ib lub teeb duab xws li ellipse, vas lossis ncaj ncaj , raws li qhov muaj nqis ntawm qhov kev kho qhov muag qhov sib txawv ntawm cov txheej txheem ntawm Ex Component lub teeb thiab qhov feem ntsug tivthaiv Ey.
Raws li tau piav saum toj no, vim lub anisotropy ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua refractive, qhov teeb meem lub teeb nthwv dej yog siv mus rau qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua, los yog lub xeev lub teeb ci thiab qhov sib pauv ntawm lub teeb meem polarized. Qhov no yog lub hauv paus ntawm lub cev thiab kho qhov muag ntawm txoj haujlwm ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua.

Thaum cov kev coj ntawm txoj kab ntawm txoj kab ntawm txoj kab sib dhos optoelectronic vector yog nyob rau hauv tib lub dav hlau thiab mus tib seem rau lub vector ntawm molecule, thaum cov kua siv lead ua twisted lub suab, qhov teeb meem lub teeb yuav tig raws txoj kev xav ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecule N parallel to the event qhov chaw nres nkoj, thiab qhov kev taw qhia ntawm qhov kawg ejection lub teeb yog mus tib seem rau cov kev taw qhia ntawm vector n ntawm qhov hluav taws xob ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua. ;
Thaum cov kev taw qhia txog txoj kab ntawm txoj kab kev tawm qauv optoelectronic vector yog perpendicular mus rau n ntawm qhov xwm txheej dav hlau molecule, qhov kev taw qhia ntawm qhov kev vibration ntawm cov hluav taws xob vector ntawm lub teeb emitted tshua perpendicular mus rau cov kev coj ntawm cov kua siv lead ua molecule directing vector n.

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Cov kua siv lead ua lub thev tso rau hauv txoj kev tsis muaj hluav taws xob

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  § 4 Kev kho cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules

    Qhov twg ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua yog ua raws li lub hauv paus ntawm metropolis, uas yog, nyob rau ntawm thaj chaw ntawm hluav taws xob thiab cov cua sov, cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules hloov ntawm cov kev pib ua ntej mus rau lwm lub xeev molecular. Nrog rau kev kho ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules, cov khoom siv kho qhov muag ntawm cov kua siv lead ua hloov mus rau kev hloov qhov muag pom. Cov teeb thiab cov txheej txheem pib siv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua (liquid crystal molecules) yog lub hauv paus ntawm cov khoom siv lead ua kua.
Muaj 7 hom qia ntshav siv lead ua molecules. Raws li tau hais hauv cov lus hauv qab no, peb nthuav qhia cov lus piav qhia txog cov kua siv lead ua kua ntau yam.

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(1) txoj kab sib dhos (molecular heapment): tag nrho cov tshuaj siv lead ua kua molecules yog vertically dlhos rau ob sab ntawm lub substrate.
(2) raws cov txheej txheem nplaum molecular: tag nrho cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog ib qho uas tig mus rau ib sab ntawm cov substrate thiab txheej txheem ntawm tib qho kev.
(3) tis molecular kev kho: tag nrho cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog tilted ntawm tej lub kaum sab nraud rau sab ob sab thiab npaj rau tib qho kev coj.
(4) kev npaj ntawm cov khoom xyaw sib xyaw: cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog teem rau ntawm ib sab ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua thiab cov tib seem ntawm sab nraud, yog li cov txheej txheem ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules pheej yig ncua 90o ntawm ob pieces ntawm substrate.

(5) kev tsim kho ntawm cov kab uas sib ceg: tag nrho cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog ua kom zoo ib yam rau ob tog, tiam sis qhov kev taw qhia ntawm ob qho chaw ntawm cov substrate yog 90 o ob leeg, yog li sib txhuam ntawm cov kua tshuaj ua kua molecules yog tsis tu ncua los ntawm 90 o ntawm ob qho ntawm substrate.
(6) spiral arrangement nyob rau saum npoo: qhov axis ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua dej yog muab khi rau ntawm lub substrate rau ob sab.
(7) kev tsim ntawm molecular lub cones: lub ax axis ntawm cov kua siv lead ua yog muab tso rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm lub hauv paus rau ntawm ob sab, tab sis qhov kev coj ntawm lub spiral axis tsis meej.

  § 5 Cov lus teb hluav taws xob ntawm cov hluav taws xob kua hluav taws xob

1) electrooptic yam ntxwv cwj pwm ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua

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Nyob hauv daim ntawv thov, vim feem ntau ntawm cov npo LCD, nws yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws kom tsis txhob ntxiv lub hwjchim ci ntsa iab. Los ntawm lub zog txuag thiab lub neej ntawm lub LCD screen, peb feem ntau yog siv txoj kev nkhaus hauv electro-optic.

2) kev ua tau zoo ntawm cov kua hluav taws xob ua kua

Qhov hluav taws xob qhov hluav taws xob Vth:
Nws yog tus nqi hluav taws xob sab nraud ntawm 10% (tsis pom zoo) los sis 90% (zoo hom) ntawm qhov kev xa tawm siab tshaj plaws (qhov nruab nrab Fang Genzhi ntawm sab nraud qhov hluav taws xob sib txuas). Nws qhia tias thawj zaug muaj qhov muaj nuj nqi ntawm qhov tshwm sim ntawm cov kua hluav taws xob ua kua. Qhov me me tus nqi, qhov tsawg dua qhov ua hauj lwm voltage ntawm lub cuab yeej, lub Vth theem qhov sib txawv ntawm txhua yam ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua yog qhov sib txawv heev. Hom TN yog 1 mus rau 3V, thiab DS hom yog 5 mus rau 10V ..

Saturation voltage Vs:
Nws sib raug mus rau sab nraud qhov hluav taws xob ntawm lub siab tshaj plaws ntawm kev xa tawm 90% (hom tsis zoo) lossis 10% (yam zoo). Qhov loj ntawm Vs qhab nia qhov sib txawv qhov sib txawv ntawm sab nraud qhov hluav taws xob ntawm lub tso tawm tsev, thiab Vs me yog qhov yooj yim kom tau ib qho zoo ntawm cov zaub.

Tshaj tawm:
Cov kua siv lead ua kua yog ib yam khoom ua kom pom zoo, vim li ntawd nws tsis tuaj yeem ua kom pom los ntawm ci ntsa iab. Nws tsuas yog khwv tau los ntawm qhov sib txawv. Vim hais tias qhov kev txiav txim ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules tsis yog txog li 1, qhov sib txuam ntawm qhov sib luag thiab qhov feem pua ntawm cov polarizer tsis muaj peev xwm ncav cuag 100%, vim li ntawd nws yeej tsis yooj yim sua kom paub cov kua siv lead ua kua hauv qhov muag pom. Cov nyhuv ntawm cov ntawv dub tsuas paub txog cov nyhuv ntawm cov ntawv dub ntawm cov xim dub. Cov khoom siv ua kua dav dav yog irradiated nrog lub teeb dawb lossis hnub ci, thiab qhov sib txawv yog 5: 1 txog 20: 1.

Kev txhais ntawm steepness:
Rau qhov piv txwv ntawm qhov kev kub ntxhov siab rau qhov pib qhov siab, vim yog Vs> Vth,> 1, los ntawm qhov kev nkhaus ntawm electro-optic, qhia tau tias qhov closer ntawm Vs yog los ntawm Vth, qhov ceev ntawm electro-optic nkhaus yog, tus closer mus rau 1, qhov ntau qhov zoo dua tus nqi yog, qhov ntau ze ntawm 1 hauv kev tshawb xav.
Vim hais tias tus nqi ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua tsis yog 1 hauv txoj kev tsav tsheb, qhov kev txuam ntawm tus ntoo yog tsis muaj kev tiv thaiv thiab tsis tuaj yeem ua kom tshem tawm, yog li nws raug cuam tshuam qhov zoo ntawm cov duab pom ntawm tus neeg tsav lub cev.
Qhov TN feem ntau cov kua qaub ua kua = 1.4 ~ 1.6.

Lub sij hawm teb:
Lub sij hawm teb ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua dej feem ntau yog cov cim ntawm 3 yam: ncua sij hawm, nce lub sij hawm thiab lub caij nplooj zeeg.
Feem ntau hais lus, peb xav tias lub sij hawm teb tam sim no yog qhov sib ntxiv ntawm lub sij hawm ntxiv thiab lub caij nplooj zeeg caij nyoog.
Vim tias cov kua siv ua kua ntawm cov dej ua kua muaj qhov kub tsis zoo, lub sij hawm teb nce nrog txo tus cua sov, yog li cov kua siv lead ua kua tsis haum rau kev ua haujlwm tsawg.

tsis pom kev
Thaum lub iav polarizing, kua siv lead ua kua, thiab cov yeeb yaj duab orientation yog cov backlit, cov lus kawg ntawm cov zis lub teeb muaj ib qho kev coj, thiab feem ntau lawv muaj qhov kev taw qhia directionality, yog li ntawd thaum peb saib LCD los ntawm ib txoj kab tsis ntsug, nws nyom tua cov ntsug kev coj ntawm lub teeb, tsis yog txhua lub teeb tau. Los ntawm peb lub qhov muag, lub sij hawm no LCD qhia txog xim dub los yog xim distortion, uas yog lub kaum sab xis pom tias plagues lub kua siv lead ua kua.
Txawm li cas los xij, muaj ntau yam kev yees duab zoo dua rau cov kev xav LCD, xws li kev siv lub tshuab MVA.

3) qhov kub ntawm cov khoom siv ua kua
Kev siv ntau yam kub yog nqaim thiab qhov kub nyhiab yog qhov loj dua. Nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb heev ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua. Thaum lub ntsuas kub siab loj, cov kua siv lead ua kua thiab tsis tuaj yeem tshwm. Thaum twg qhov kub tsis dhau, cov lus teb yuav qis qis dua obviously kom txog rau thaum cov crystallization ua tus ntaus puas.
The working temperature has a great influence on the threshold voltage, response time, contrast and volt ampere characteristics, such as the TN liquid crystal, the threshold voltage of 3V at 10oC, and the threshold voltage drop to 2V when the temperature rises to 40oC.

4) the volt ampere characteristics of liquid crystal devices
In addition to DS type liquid crystal devices, the liquid crystal display devices used are all electric field effect devices. In the case of TN, the internal resistance is very high, the resistivity is more than 1010 OMEGA / cm2, and the reactance is only a few PF / cm2, so the working current is less than 1 microan / cm2, and it is a typical micro power device (without backlight).
The TN device is basically tolerant, so the refresh frequency of AC drive has a great influence on the driving current. If the refresh frequency is increased from 32Hz to 200Hz, the driving current will increase by 5~10 times, so the refresh frequency is generally controlled at the critical frequency of no scintillation, generally in 60Hz to 75Hz.

5) the electric energy accumulation effect of liquid crystal devices
It means that the transmittance of the liquid crystal box does not increase at the same time with the external voltage, but only after several pulse sequences will begin to increase, and a certain sequence of pulses will be added to make the maximum light transmittance. This effect is called the electrical energy storage of the liquid crystal devices, that is to say, only the external field acts on the liquid crystal pixels. The longer the time, the better the response of liquid crystal devices. The greater the transmittance, the better the brightness and contrast.

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