Tsev > Exhibition > Ntsiab lus

Kua-siv lead ua zaub

Apr 24, 2017

Txheej txheem cej luam


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Ib tug LCD zaub screen siv raws li ib tug ceeb toom vaj huam sib luag rau cov neeg ncig.


Txhua pixel ntawm ib tug LCD feem ntau muaj ib tug txheej ntawm molecules raws ntawm ob pob tshab electrodes, thiab ob polarizing cov ntxaij lim dej (thaum uas tig mus thiab perpendicular), lub co ntawm kis tau tus mob uas yog (nyob rau hauv feem ntau ntawm cov neeg mob) perpendicular mus rau txhua lwm yam. Yog tsis muaj cov kua siv lead ua los ntawm cov polarizing cov ntxaij lim dej, lub teeb dhau los ntawm tus thawj lim yuav tau sim los ntawm tus thib ob (hla) polarizer. Ua ntej ib tug hluav taws xob field yog thov, lub orientation ntawm cov kua-siv lead ua molecules yog txiav txim los ntawm lub kawm tuab si lug ntawm qhov chaw ntawm electrodes. Nyob rau hauv ib cov nematic (TN) ntaus ntawv, qhov chaw kawm tuab si lug qhia nyob rau ob electrodes yog perpendicular mus rau txhua lwm yam, thiab thiaj li cov molecules npaj lawv tus kheej nyob rau hauv ib tug helical qauv, los yog twist. Qhov no induces kev sib hloov ntawm lub polarization ntawm qhov teeb meem lub teeb, thiab lub ntaus ntawv zoo nkaus li grey. Yog hais tias lub thov voltage yog loj txaus, cov kua siv lead ua molecules nyob rau hauv qhov chaw ntawm lub txheej yog yuav luag tag untwisted thiab cov polarization ntawm qhov teeb meem teeb yog tsis tig raws li nws kis tau los ntawm cov kua siv lead ua txheej. Qhov no teeb yuav ces yuav mas polarized perpendicular mus rau lub thib ob lim, thiab yog li yuav sim thiab lub pixel yuav tshwm sim dub. Los ntawm kev tswj lub voltage thov thoob plaws lub kua siv lead ua txheej nyob rau hauv txhua pixel, lub teeb yuav tsum tau tso cai rau kis tau los ntawm nyob rau hauv ntau nqi li constituting txawv muaj ntau seem ntawm grey. Xim LCD systems siv tib cov txheej txheem, nrog rau xim cov ntxaij lim dej yuav siv los ua kom muaj liab, ntsuab, thiab xiav pixels.


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LCD nrog sab saum toj polarizer muab tshem tawm los ntawm ntaus ntawv thiab muab tso rau hauv sab saum toj, xws li hais tias cov saum toj thiab hauv qab polarizers yog perpendicular.


Kho qhov muag zoo ntawm ib tug TN ntaus ntawv nyob rau hauv lub voltage-on lub xeev yog nyob deb tsawg nyob rau variations nyob rau hauv lub ntaus ntawv thickness tshaj uas nyob rau hauv lub voltage-off xeev. Vim hais tias ntawm no, TN qhia nrog cov uas tsis muaj ntaub ntawv ntsiab lus thiab tsis muaj Backlighting no feem ntau yog ua nyob nruab nrab ntawm hla polarizers xws li tias lawv tshwm sim kaj uas tsis muaj voltage (lub qhov muag yog ntau npaum li cas rhiab rau variations nyob rau hauv qhov tsaus ntuj nti lub xeev tshaj qhov kaj lug lub xeev). Raws li feem ntau ntawm 2010-era LCDs yog siv nyob rau hauv TV poob lawm, saib thiab smartphones, lawv muaj high-kev daws teeb meem matrix arrays ntawm pixels mus tso saib arbitrary dluab siv Backlighting nrog ib tug maub tom qab. Thaum tsis muaj cov duab no tso tawm kom, sib txawv kev npaj yuav siv. Rau lub hom phiaj no, TN LCDs yog ua ntawm thaum uas tig mus polarizers, whereas IPS LCDs feature hla polarizers. Nyob rau hauv muaj ntau yam ntaub ntawv sau npe IPS LCDs tau hloov TN LCDs, nyob rau hauv kev nyob rau hauv smartphones xws li iPhones. Ob lub kua siv lead ua cov ntaub ntawv thiab cov kawm tuab si lug txheej cov ntaub ntawv uas muaj ionic tebchaw. Yog hais tias ib tug hluav taws xob field of ib tug polarity yog thov rau ib ntev lub sij hawm ntawm lub sij hawm, qhov no ionic cov ntaub ntawv uas yog attracted rau qhov chaw thiab degrades lub ntaus ntawv kev ua tau zoo. Qhov no yog zam los ntawm thov ib tug alternating tam sim no los yog los ntawm reversing lub polarity ntawm lub electric teb raws li tus ntaus ntawv yog nyob (cov lus teb ntawm cov kua siv lead ua txheej yog zoo tib yam, tsis hais ntawm lub polarity ntawm lub thov teb).



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Cov saib nrog LCD zaub.


Qhia rau ib tug me me muaj pes tsawg tus ntawm ib tug neeg tug lej tom qab los yog tsau cim (raws li nyob rau hauv cov watches thiab hnab tshos cov cav laij leb) tau muab los siv nrog cov neeg sab nraud electrodes rau txhua ya. Rau hauv sib piv, tag nrho alphanumeric los yog nce mus nce los graphics qhia no feem ntau yog siv nrog pixels txheej txheem raws li ib tug matrix uas muaj electrically kev cob cog rua kab nyob rau ib sab ntawm lub LC txheej thiab txhua nyob rau lwm yam sab, uas ua rau nws ua tau rau chaw nyob txhua pixel nyob rau cov kev sib tshuam. Cov kev txoj kev matrix hais muaj sequentially hais ib sab ntawm lub matrix, piv txwv li los xaiv lub kab ib-by-ib tug thiab ua ntawv thov cov duab ntaub ntawv nyob rau lwm yam sab ntawm lub kab kab-by-kab. Kom paub meej nyob rau hauv ntau yam matrix hais schemes saib passive-matrix thiab active-matrix nyob LCDs.


Keeb kwm

1880s-1960

Lub hauv paus pib thiab lub complex keeb kwm ntawm cov kua-siv lead ua qhia los ntawm lub foundations ntawm ib tug Insider thaum lub sij hawm thaum ntxov hnub tau piav los ntawm Yauxej A. Castellano nyob rau hauv Kua kub: Cov Zaj Dab Neeg ntawm Kua Crystal Qhia thiab cov Creation ntawm ib tug lag luam. Lwm daim ntawv qhia nyob rau hauv lub hauv paus pib thiab keeb kwm ntawm LCD los ntawm ib tug txawv foundations kom txog rau thaum xyoo 1991 los lawm tau luam tawm los ntawm Hiroshi Kawamoto, nyob rau hauv lub IEEE History Center. Ib tug piav qhia ntawm Swiss pab rau LCD tsim tau, sau los ntawm Peter J. qus, yuav ntsia li IEEE Thawj-tes History. Nyob rau hauv 1888, Friedrich Reinitzer (1858-1927) sab cov kua crystalline xwm ntawm cov roj uas txhaws rho tawm los ntawm carrots (uas yog, ob melting ntsiab lus thiab tiam ntawm cov xim) thiab luam tawm nws tshawb pom ntawm ib tug lub rooj sib tham ntawm lub Vienna Tshuaj Society on May 3, 1888 ( F. Reinitzer: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cholesterins, Monatshefte für Chemie (Wien) 9, 421-441 (1888)). Nyob rau hauv 1904, Otto Lehmann luam tawm nws ua hauj lwm "Flüssige Kristalle" (Kua Muaju). Nyob rau hauv 1911, Charles Mauguin thawj experimented nrog kua muaju ceev ntawm daim hlau nyob rau hauv nyias khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg.

Nyob rau xyoo 1922, Georges Friedel piav txog tus qauv thiab cov khoom ntawm cov kua muaju thiab txwv kom muab zais lawv nyob rau hauv 3 hom (nematics, smectics thiab cholesterics). Nyob rau hauv 1927, Vsevolod Frederiks devised lub electrically hloov lub teeb valve, hu ua lub Fréedericksz hloov, qhov tseem ceeb nyhuv ntawm tag nrho cov LCD technology. Nyob rau hauv 1936, lub Marconi Wireless ntaus xov tooj lub tuam txhab patented thawj ua daim ntawv thov ntawm cov technology, "Lub Kua Crystal teeb Valve". Nyob rau hauv 1962, thawj loj lus Askiv ntawv rau cov kev kawm "Molecular Qauv thiab khoom kua Muaju", los ntawm Dr. George W. Grey. Nyob rau hauv 1962, Richard Williams ntawm RCA pom tau tias cov kua muaju muaj ib co nthuav electro-optic yam ntxwv thiab nws pom tau hais ib tug electro-kho qhov muag nyhuv los ntawm generating stripe-qauv nyob rau hauv ib tug nyias txheej ntawm kua siv lead ua cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm cov ntaub ntawv rau ntawm ib tug voltage. Cov nyhuv no yog raws li nyob rau hauv ib tug electro-hydrodynamic instability txoj kev yog dab tsi yog tam sim no hu ua "Williams thawj" nyob rau hauv lub kua siv lead ua.

Nyob rau hauv 1964, George H. Heilmeier, ces ua hauj lwm nyob rau RCA lub chaw soj nstuam rau cov nyhuv sab los ntawm cov Williams tiav lub switching ntawm cov xim los ntawm teb hob realignment ntawm dichroic dyes nyob rau hauv ib tug homeotropically taw qhia kom paub ua kua siv lead ua. Tswv yim muaj teeb meem nrog no tshiab electro-kho qhov muag nyhuv ua Heilmeier txuas ntxiv mus ua hauj lwm rau tawg los nyob rau hauv cov kua muaju thiab thaum kawg qhov kev kawm ntawm cov thawj ua hauj lwm kua-siv lead ua zaub raws li nws hu ua tus dynamic scattering hom (DSM). Daim ntawv thov ntawm ib tug voltage mus rau ib tug DSM zaub keyboards lub chiv ntshiab pob tshab kua siv lead ua txheej mus rau hauv ib tug ntais turbid lub xeev. DSM qhia yuav tsum ua nyob rau hauv transmissive thiab nyob rau hauv kev hom tiam sis lawv yuav tsum tau ib tug txiav txim tam sim no ntws rau lawv lub lag luam. George H. Heilmeier twb inducted nyob rau hauv lub National inventors Hall ntawm koob meej thiab muaj nqi nrog rau cov invention ntawm LCDs. Heilmeier lub chaw ua hauj lwm yog ib qho IEEE Milestone. Nyob rau hauv lub caij mus txog 1960, ib tug tho kev ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv cov kua muaju twb pom los ntawm cov UK tus muaj koob muaj npe Radar Tsim ntawm Malvern, England. Cov pab neeg ntawm RRE txhawb tu ncua kev ua hauj lwm los ntawm George William Grey thiab nws pab neeg nyob rau University of Hull uas thaum kawg sab cyanobiphenyl kua muaju, uas muaj tseeb stability thiab kub zog rau daim ntawv thov nyob rau hauv LCDs.


Xyoo 1970-1980s

Nyob rau lub Kaum Ob Hlis 4, 1970, lub twisted nematic teb nyhuv hauv cov kua muaju tau sau tsab ntawv rau patent los ntawm Hoffmann-LaRoche nyob rau hauv Switzerland, (Swiss patent No. 532 261) nrog Wolfgang Helfrich thiab Martin Schadt (ces ua hauj lwm rau lub Central tshawb fawb chaw soj nstuam) teev tseg raws li inventors. Hoffmann-La Roche ces muaj ntawv tso cai cov invention mus rau lub Swiss chaw tsim tshuaj paus Brown, Boveri & Cie leej twg uas ua qhia rau qij tes lub moo thaum lub sij hawm lub xyoo 1970 thiab tseem mus Japanese electronics kev lag luam, uas tsis ntev ua thawj cov quartz dab teg ua si nrog TN-LCDs thiab ntau yam khoom. James Fergason, thaum ua hauj lwm nrog Sardari Arora thiab Alfred Saupe ntawm Kent State University Kua Crystal lub koom haum, yuav tsum yog ib tug zoo tib yam patent nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United States nyob rau hauv lub Plaub Hlis 22, 1971. Nyob rau hauv 1971 lub tuam txhab ntawm Fergason ILIXCO (tam sim no LXD Incorporated) ua tus thawj LCDs raws li nyob rau TN-nyhuv, uas tsis ntev hloov txoj kev cai rau cov neeg pluag-zoo DSM hom vim kev txhim kho ntawm sab kev khiav hauj lwm voltages thiab qis zog noj. Nyob rau hauv 1972, thawj active-matrix kua-siv lead ua zaub vaj huam sib luag twb ua nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United States los ntawm T. Peter Brody pab ntawm Westinghouse, nyob rau hauv Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Nyob rau hauv 1983, kev soj ntsuam ntawm Brown, Boveri & Cie (BBC), Switzerland, yees ua lub super-twisted nematic (STN) qauv rau passive matrix nyob LCDs. H. Amstutz li al. tau teev tseg raws li inventors nyob rau hauv cov coj patent daim ntaub ntawv yuav tsum yog nyob rau hauv Switzerland rau Lub Xya hli ntuj 7, 1983, thiab Lub kaum hli ntuj 28, 1983. Patents lawv pom zoo nyob rau hauv Switzerland CH 665491, cov teb chaws Europe EP 0131216, US Patent 4,634,229 thiab ntau ntau lub teb chaws.

Nyob rau hauv 1988, Ntse Corporation pom ib tug 14-nti, active-matrix, tag nrho-xim, full-tsab ntawv tsa suab TFT LCD zaub. Qhov no coj mus rau Nyiv launching ib tug LCD kev lag luam, uas tsim loj-loj LCD qhia, xws li TFT computer saib thiab LCD TV. Nyob rau hauv lub lig Kwvyees li xyoo 1990, cov LCD kev lag luam pib hloov deb ntawm Nyiv, ntawm South Kauslim thiab Taiwan.


Kwvyees li xyoo 1990-2010s

Nyob rau hauv 1990, nyob rau hauv sib txawv lub npe, inventors xeeb electro kho qhov muag los li cawm cov nematic teb nyhuv LCDs (TN- thiab STN- LCDs). Ib tug mus kom ze yog siv interdigital electrodes rau ntawm ib lub khob substrate xwb los tsim ib tug hluav taws xob field yeej tseem zoo thaum uas tig mus rau hauv lub khob substrates. Yuav kom tau zoo dua tag nrho ntawm lub thaj chaw ntawm no Nyob rau hauv dav hlau switching (IPS) technology ntxiv ua hauj lwm tau yuav tsum tau. Tom qab meej tsom xam, cov ntsiab lus ntawm ib qho kev zoo embodiments yog tau sau ntawv nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws Yelemees los ntawm Guenter Baur li al. thiab patented nyob rau hauv ntau lub teb chaws. Lub Fraunhofer lub koom haum nyob rau hauv Freiburg, qhov twg inventors ua hauj lwm, assigns cov patents rau Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, ib tug neeg muag khoom ntawm LC tshuaj. Nyob rau hauv 1992, sai tom qab ntawd, engineers ntawm Hitachi ua hauj lwm tawm ntau yam tswv yim kom paub meej txog cov IPS technology rau interconnect nyias-zaj duab xis transistor array raws li ib tug matrix thiab kom tsis txhob muaj undesirable stray teb nyob rau hauv nruab nrab pixels. Hitachi kuj pab txoj kev saib lub dependence ntxiv los ntawm optimizing tus duab ntawm lub electrodes (Super IPS). NEC thiab Hitachi ua thaum ntxov manufacturers ntawm active-matrix nyob LCDs raws li nyob rau hauv lub IPS technology. Qhov no yog ib milestone rau kev siv loj-screen LCDs muaj tau kev kawm rau pav ca-vaj huam sib luag computer saib thiab TV cov ntxaij vab tshaus. Nyob rau hauv 1996, Samsung tsim kho qhov muag patterning txheej txheem uas enables multi-sau LCD. Multi-sau thiab Nyob rau hauv dav hlau switching tom qab nyob twj ywm rau hauv lub hom LCD designs los ntawm 2006. Nyob rau hauv lub quarter thib plaub ntawm 2007, LCD TV surpassed CRTs nyob rau hauv thoob ntiaj teb muag rau cov thawj lub sij hawm. LCD TVs tau npaj rau tus account 50% ntawm 200 million TVs yuav tsum tau xa thooj plawv nyob rau hauv 2006, raws li Muab Bank. Nyob rau hauv Lub kaum hli ntuj 2011, Toshiba tshaj tawm 2560 × 1600 pixels rau ib tug 6.1-nti (155 hli) LCD vaj huam sib luag, haum rau siv nyob rau hauv ib ntsiav tshuaj lub computer, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau Suav cim zaub.


Illumination

Txij li thaum LCD panels tsim tsis muaj teeb ntawm lawv tus kheej, lawv yuav tsum tau sab nraud lub teeb yuav tsim ib tug pom cov duab. Nyob rau hauv ib tug "transmissive" hom LCD, no lub teeb yog muab nyob rau tom qab ntawm cov iav "pawg" thiab yog hu ua tus backlight. Thaum passive-matrix qhia yog feem ntau tsis backlit (xws li cov cav laij leb, qij tes lub moo), active-matrix qhia yuav luag ib txwm yog.


Cov hom implementations ntawm LCD backlight technology yog:


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18 thaum uas tig mus CCFLs li backlight rau ib tug 42-nti LCD TV


CCFL: Lub LCD vaj huam sib luag yog lit los ntawm ob txias cathode fluorescent teeb muab tso rau opposite npoo ntawm cov zaub los yog ib tug array ntawm thaum uas tig mus CCFLs qab loj qhia. Ib tug diffuser ces kis lub teeb tawm tusyees thoob plaws tag nrho cov zaub. Rau ntau xyoo, qhov no technology tau siv yuav luag heev dua lwm yam. Tsis zoo li dawb LEDs, feem ntau CCFLs muaj ib tug txawm-dawb spectral tso zis ua rau zoo dua xim gamut rau cov zaub. Txawm li cas los, CCFLs yog tsawg zog npaum li LEDs thiab yuav tsum tau ib tug dog dig kim inverter yuav hloov txawm DC voltage tus ntaus ntawv siv (feem ntau yog 5 los yog 12 V) rau ~ 1000 V yuav tsum tau mus rau lub teeb ib tug CCFL. Lub thickness ntawm cov inverter transformers kuj txwv yuav ua li cas nyias cov zaub yuav tau ua.


EL-WLED: Lub LCD vaj huam sib luag yog lit los ntawm ib tug kab ntawm dawb LEDs muab tso rau ib tug los yog ntau tshaj npoo ntawm qhov screen. Ib lub teeb diffuser yog ces siv los kis lub teeb tusyees thoob plaws tag nrho cov zaub. Raws li ntawm 2012, qhov no tsim yog lub nrov tshaj plaws ib tug nyob rau hauv desktop computer saib. Nws tso cai rau lub thinnest qhia. Ib txhia LCD saib siv no technology muaj ib tug feature hu ua "Dynamic Zoo" nyob qhov twg lub backlight yog dimmed mus rau lub brightest xim uas tshwm rau hauv lub screen, tas cov 1000: 1 zoo piv ntawm cov LCD vaj huam sib luag yuav tsum tau haum rau txawv lub teeb intensities, uas ua rau lub "30000: 1" zoo ratios pom nyob rau hauv lub advertising rau ib co ntawm cov saib. Txij li thaum lub computer screen dluab feem ntau yog muaj tag nrho cov dawb qhov chaw nyob rau hauv cov duab, cov backlight yuav feem ntau yuav nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov kev siv, kev ua no "feature" feem ntau ib tug li gimmick.


WLED array: Lub LCD vaj huam sib luag yog lit los ntawm ib tug tag nrho array ntawm dawb LEDs muab tso rau tom qab ib tug diffuser qab lub vaj huam sib luag. LCDs uas siv no siv yuav feem ntau yog muaj lub peev xwm mus qauj le lub LEDs nyob rau hauv qhov tsaus ntuj nti chaw ntawm daim duab raug tso tawm, zoo ua lub zoo piv ntawm cov zaub. Raws li ntawm 2012, qhov no tsim tau txais feem ntau ntawm nws cov kev siv los ntawm upscale, loj-screen LCD TV.

RGB-LED: Zoo li cov WLED array, tsuas yog lub vaj huam sib luag yog lit los ntawm ib tug tag nrho array ntawm RGB LEDs. Thaum qhia zes nrog dawb LEDs feem ntau yog muaj ib tug poorer xim gamut tshaj CCFL zes qhia, panels lit nrog RGB LEDs muaj dav heev xim gamuts. Qhov no yuav ua raws li yog feem ntau nrov nyob rau kev graphics editing LCDs. Raws li ntawm 2012, LCDs nyob rau hauv pawg no feem ntau yog nqi ntau tshaj li $ 1000.

Niaj hnub no, feem ntau LCD cov ntxaij vab tshaus raug tsim los nrog ib tug LED backlight es tsis txhob ntawm cov tsoos CCFL backlight.


Kev twb kev txuas mus rau lwm cov circuits


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Ib tug liab Elastomeric connector mating ib tug LCD vaj huam sib luag rau Circuit Court board ib co kua nplaum, qhia tom ntej no mus rau ib tug centimeter-scale kav. (Lub conductive thiab insulating khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg nyob rau hauv lub dub stripe yog heev me me, nyem ntawm daim duab rau kev tshaj qhia.)


LCD panels feem ntau siv thinly coated nws yog xim hlau conductive txoj rau ib tug iav substrate tsim lub cell circuitry rau koj khiav lag luam cov vaj huam sib luag. Nws yog feem ntau tsis tau siv soldering hom kev kawm mus ncaj qha mus cuag cov vaj huam sib luag rau ib tug nyias muaj nyias ib tooj liab-etched Circuit Court board. Es tsis txhob, interfacing yog accomplished siv tog twg los nplaum yas ribbon nrog conductive ib co kua nplaum glued mus rau sawv ntawm lub LCD vaj huam sib luag, los yog nrog ib tug Elastomeric connector, uas yog ib tug sawb ntawm roj hmab los yog silicone nrog alternating khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg ntawm conductive thiab insulating pathways, nias ntawm hu los rau lub LCD thiab pos hu los rau ib tug circuit Court board.


Passive thiab active-matrix


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Tsab ntawm ib tug passive-matrix STN-LCD nrog 540x270 pixels, Brown Boveri kev tshawb fawb, Switzerland, 1984


Monochrome thiab tom qab xim passive-matrix LCDs twb txheem nyob rau hauv feem ntau thaum ntxov laptops (txawm tias ib tug ob peb siv ntshav qhia) thiab tus thawj Nintendo ua si tub mus txog rau thaum nruab nrab-1990s, thaum cov xim active-matrix los ua qauv rau tag nrho cov laptops. Cov lag luam hai Macintosh Portable (tso nyob rau hauv 1989) yog ib tug ntawm cov thawj siv ib tug active-matrix zaub (tab sis yog tseem monochrome). Passive-matrix LCDs yog tseem siv nyob rau hauv lub 2010s rau daim ntaub ntawv tsawg demanding tshaj laptops thiab TVs, xws li pheej yig laij lej. Nyob rau hauv kev, cov no yog siv nyob rau hauv portable pab kiag li lawm qhov twg tsawg ntaub ntawv ntsiab lus yuav tsum tau tso tawm, qis tshaj zog noj (tsis muaj backlight) thiab tus nqi qis yog yam los yog readability nyob rau hauv ncaj qha tshav ntuj yuav tsum tau.


Qhia muaj ib tug passive-matrix qauv yog ua hauj lwm super-twisted nematic STN (yees los ntawm Brown Boveri tshawb fawb Center, Baden, Switzerland, nyob rau hauv 1983; scientific lus raug luam tawm) los yog ob-txheej STN (DSTN) technology (tus tom kawg ntawm uas addresses ib xim-hloov teeb meem nrog tus qub), thiab xim-STN (CSTN) nyob rau hauv uas tsuas yog ntxiv los ntawm kev siv ib tug nrog lim. STN LCDs tau optimized rau passive-matrix hais. Lawv muaj ib tug sharper chaw pib ntawm lub zoo-vs-voltage yam ntxwv tshaj tus thawj TN LCDs. Qhov no yog ib qho tseem ceeb, vim hais tias pixels yog raug rau ib nrab voltages txawm thaum tsis xaiv. Crosstalk ntawm tshuab txais thiab uas tsis yog-tshuab txais pixels muaj yuav tsum tau daws kom lawv ua raws li rms voltage uas tsis yog-tshuab txais pixels hauv qab no rau lub chaw pib voltage, thaum tshuab txais pixels yog raug rau voltages saum toj no pib. STN LCDs yuav tsum tau tsis tu ncua zog los ntawm alternating pulsed voltages ntawm ib tug polarity thaum lub sij hawm ib tug ncej thiab pulses ntawm opposite polarity thaum lub sij hawm tom ntej no ncej. Cov pixels yog nyob los ntawm cov coj kab thiab sab circuits. Qhov no hom ntawm cov zaub no hu ua passive-matrix nyob, vim hais tias cov pixel yuav tsum khaws nws cov xeev nyob nruab nrab ntawm refreshes tsis muaj cov kev pab ntawm ib tug neeg twg hluav taws xob xwb. Raws li tus naj npawb ntawm pixels (thiab, correspondingly, txhua thiab kab) tsub kom, qhov no hom ntawm cov zaub yuav tsis tshua muaj tau. Qeeb teb lub sij hawm thiab cov neeg pluag zoo yog ntse passive-matrix nyob LCDs nrog ntau dhau lawm pixels.

Nyob rau hauv lub 2010s, pes tsawg-power (bistable) LCDs tsis yuav tsum tau tas mus li refreshing. Rewriting yog tsuas yog yuav tsum tau rau daim duab ntaub ntawv hloov. Tej, passive-matrix hais yuav siv tau nrog rau cov tshiab kiag li lawm, yog hais tias lawv sau / lwv yam ntxwv yog tsim. High-resolution xim qhia, xws li niaj hnub LCD computer saib thiab TV, siv ib tug active-matrix qauv. Ib tug matrix ntawm nyias-zaj duab xis transistors (TFTs) yog ntxiv rau cov electrodes nyob rau hauv kev sib cuag nrog lub LC txheej. Txhua pixel nws muaj nws tus kheej siab transistor, uas ib sab kab mus saib tau ib tug pixel. Thaum ib tug kab kab yog xaiv, tag nrho cov kem cov kab yog kev cob cog rua rau ib tug kab ntawm pixels thiab voltages coj mus rau hauv daim duab cov ntaub ntawv uas tau tsav mus rau tag nrho cov kem cov kab. Cov kab kab yog ces deactivated thiab tom ntej no kab kab yog xaiv. Tag nrho cov kab kab raug xaiv nyob rau hauv ib theem zuj zus thaum lub sij hawm ib tug refresh lub lag luam. Active-matrix nyob qhia saib zog thiab sharper tshaj passive-matrix nyob qhia ntawm tib yam loj, thiab feem ntau muaj cuam sai teb lub sij hawm, ua zoo npaum li cas cov dluab.


Active-matrix technologies


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Ib tug Casio 1.8 nyob rau hauv cov xim TFT LCD, siv nyob rau hauv lub Sony Sib tham isthawmnev hais-txhaj DSC-P93A cov compact koob yees duab


Twisted nematic (TN)

Twisted nematic qhia muaj kua muaju uas ntswj thiab untwist ntawm cov zaubmov kom tso cai rau lub teeb kis tau los ntawm. Thaum tsis muaj voltage yog thov kom muaj ib TN kua siv lead ua cell, polarized teeb kis tau los ntawm cov 90-degrees cov LC txheej. Nyob rau hauv kev faib ua feem rau cov voltage hos, cov kua muaju untwist hloov lub polarization thiab thaiv cov hlab lub teeb txoj kev. By kom kho rau theem ntawm cov voltage yuav luag txhua gray theem los yog kis tau tus mob yuav ua tau tiav.


Nyob rau hauv dav hlau switching (IPS)

Nyob rau hauv dav hlau switching yog ib qho LCD technology uas mus raws cov kua muaju nyob rau hauv ib tug dav hlau thaum uas tig mus rau lub iav substrates. Nyob rau hauv no txoj kev, qhov hluav taws xob field yog thov los ntawm opposite electrodes rau tib lub khob substrate, yog li ntawd cov kua muaju yuav reoriented (switched) yeej tseem zoo nyob rau hauv tib lub dav hlau, txawm hais tias fringe teb inhibit ib tug homogeneous reorientation. Qhov no yuav tsum tau ob transistors rau txhua pixel es tsis txhob ntawm ib transistor yuav tsum tau rau ib tug standard nyias-zaj duab xis transistor (TFT) zaub. Ua ntej LG Enhanced IPS twb qhia nyob rau hauv 2009, lub ntxiv transistors ua nyob rau hauv thaiv cov hlab ntau kis tau tus mob cheeb tsam, yog li yuav tau ib tug zog backlight thiab siv ntau lub hwj chim, ua rau no hom ntawm cov zaub tsawg ntshaw rau phau computers. Tam sim no Panasonic yog siv ib qho enhanced version eIPS rau lawv cov loj loj LCD-TV khoom raws li Hewlett-Packard nyob rau hauv nws cov WebOS raws li TouchPad ntsiav tshuaj thiab lawv Chromebook 11.


IPS LCD vs AMOLED

Nyob rau hauv 2011, LG thov lub smartphone LG Optimus Dub (IPS LCD (LCD NOVA)) muaj lub ci ci mus txog 700 qe ntshauv, thaum lub competitor tau tsuas IPS LCD nrog 518 cov qe ntshauv thiab ob yog ib tug active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) zaub nrog 305 cov qe ntshauv . LG kuj thov lub NOVA zaub yuav tsum tau 50 feem pua ntau npaum tshaj li LCDs thiab haus xwb 50 feem pua ntawm lub hwj chim ntawm AMOLED qhia thaum ua dawb ntawm kev tshuaj ntsuam. Thaum nws los txog rau txawv ratio, AMOLED zaub tseem ua zoo tshaj plaws vim nws lwm technology, qhov twg dub theem muaj tso tawm raws li suab dub thiab tsis raws li tsaus ntuj nti grey. Nyob rau lub yim hli ntuj 24, 2011, Nokia tshaj tawm lub Nokia 701 thiab tseem ua tus thov nyiaj ntawm lub ntiaj teb no lub brightest zaub ntawm 1000 qe. Qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam kuj muaj Nokia tus Clearblack txheej, kev txhim kho tus zoo piv thiab nqa nws los ze zog mus hais tias ntawm lub AMOLED cov ntxaij vab tshaus.


Super Nyob rau hauv dav hlau switching (S-IPS)

Super-IPS tom qab qhia tom qab nyob rau hauv-lub dav hlau switching nrog txawm zoo teb lub sij hawm thiab xim tu tub tu kiv.


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Qhov no pixel-layout yog pom nyob rau hauv S-IPS LCDs. Ib tug Chevron-zoo yog siv los pib lub saib-lub khob hliav qab (khwv yees li ntawm saib cov lus qhia nrog zoo zoo thiab cov uas tsis muaj xim ua haujlwm)


Advanced fringe teb switching (AFFS)

Paub li fringe teb switching (FFS) mus txog rau thaum 2003, advanced fringe teb switching yog zoo li IPS los yog S-IPS muab superior kev kawm thiab xim gamut uas muaj luminosity. AFFS yog tsim los ntawm Hydis yees Co., Ltd, Kauslim Teb (thawm xyoo Hyundai Electronics, LCD Task Force). AFFS-thov phau daim ntaub ntawv txo xim distortion thaum tswj ib tug dav saib lub rau ib tug kws sau. Xim ua haujlwm thiab txawv tshwm sim los ntawm lub teeb to yog kho los ntawm optimizing cov dawb gamut uas tseem tej dawb / grey tu tub tu kiv. Nyob rau hauv 2004, Hydis yees Co., Ltd ntawv tso cai AFFS rau Nyiv lub Hitachi Lus. Hitachi yog siv AFFS los tsim high-end panels. Nyob rau hauv 2006, HYDIS ntawv tso cai AFFS rau Sanyo Epson Duab Devices Corporation. Tsis ntev tom qab ntawd, Hydis qhia ib tug high-transmittance evolution ntawm lub AFFS zaub, hu ua HFFS (FFS +). Hydis tswvcuab AFFS + nrog paub sab nraum zoov readability nyob rau hauv 2007. AFFS panels yog feem ntau siv nyob rau hauv lub cockpits ntawm tseeb coj mus muag aircraft qhia. Tab sis yog tsis muaj lawm ua raws li ntawm Lub ob hlis ntuj 2015.


Vertical kawm tuab si lug (VA)

Vertical-kawm tuab si lug qhia yog ib daim ntawv ntawm LCDs nyob rau hauv uas lub kua muaju lawm dlhos mas mus rau lub iav substrates. Thaum tsis muaj voltage yog thov, cov kua muaju nyob twj ywm perpendicular mus rau lub substrate, tsim ib tug dub zaub ntawm hla polarizers. Thaum voltage yog thov, cov kua muaju ceev mus rau ib tug qaij de txoj hauj lwm, lub hom phiaj rau lub teeb kis tau los ntawm thiab tsim ib tug grey-scale zaub nyob rau tus nqi ntawm cov qaij generated los ntawm cov hluav taws xob field. Nws muaj ib tug tob-dub keeb kwm yav dhau, ib tug ntau dua zoo ratio, ib tug dav saib lub, thiab cov duab zoo zoo ntawm huab kub dua tsoos twisted-nematic qhia.


Blue theem hom

Blue theem hom LCDs tau pom raws li engineering kuaj thaum ntxov nyob rau hauv 2008, tab sis lawv tsis nyob rau hauv loj-ntau lawm. Lub physics ntawm xiav theem hom LCDs hais tias heev luv luv switching lub sij hawm (~ 1 ms) yuav ua tau tiav, yog li lub sij hawm tshwm sim los muaj xim tswj muaj peev xwm tsim yuav pom tau hais thiab kim xim cov ntxaij lim dej yuav obsolete.


Zoo tswj

Ib txhia LCD panels muaj puas transistors, ua mus tas li zes los yog unlit pixels uas yog feem ntau xa mus rau raws li daig pixels los sis tuag pixels feem. Tsis zoo li kev circuits (ICS), LCD panels nrog ib tug ob peb puas transistors yog feem ntau tseem usable. Manufacturers 'cov kev cai rau lub xam tus naj npawb ntawm puas pixels txawv heev. Nyob rau ntawm ib tug taw tes, Samsung muaj ib tug pes tsawg kam rau ua txoj cai rau LCD saib muag nyob rau hauv Kauslim Teb. Raws li ntawm 2005, tab sis yog, Samsung adheres rau cov uas tsis tshua muaj kev txwv ISO 13406-2 txheem. Lwm yam tuam txhab uas muag tau tau paub tso ntau li 11 tuag pixels nyob rau hauv lawv tej kev cai.

Tuag pixel kev cai yog feem ntau hotly debated ntawm manufacturers thiab cov neeg muas zaub. Yuav kom tswj cov ibqho uas tsis xws luag thiab tiv thaiv rau cov neeg siv kawg, ISO tso lub ISO 13406-2 txheem. Txawm li cas los, tsis yog txhua tus LCD chaw tsim tshuaj paus conforms rau lub ISO txheem thiab cov ISO txuj no yog feem ntau heev txhais nyob rau hauv ntau txoj kev. LCD panels yog feem ntau yuav muaj tsis xws luag tshaj feem ntau ICS vim lawv loj loj. Piv txwv li, ib tug 300 hli SVGA LCD muaj 8 tsis xws luag thiab ib tug 150 mm wafer muaj xwb 3 tsis xws luag. Txawm li cas los, 134 ntawm lub 137 hnub nyob rau hauv lub wafer yuav tau, whereas rejection ntawm tag nrho cov LCD vaj huam sib luag yuav tsum muaj ib tug 0% tawm los. Nyob rau hauv xyoo tsis ntev los, zoo tswj lawm. Ib SVGA LCD vaj huam sib luag nrog 4 puas pixels yog feem ntau yog puas thiab cov neeg muas zaub tau thov ib qho kev pauv rau ib lub tshiab. Ib txhia manufacturers, notably nyob rau hauv South Kauslim qhov twg ib txhia ntawm cov loj tshaj plaws LCD vaj huam sib luag manufacturers, xws li LG, muaj nyob, tam sim no muaj "zero puas pixel guarantee", uas yog ib tug ntxiv kev soj ntsuam kuaj cov txheej txheem uas tau ces txiav txim "A" thiab "B" qib panels. Muaj ntau manufacturers yuav hloov ib yam khoom txawm nrog ib tug puas pixel. Txawm nyob qhov twg xws guarantees tsis muaj nyob, qhov chaw ntawm puas pixels yog ib qho tseem ceeb. Ib tug zaub uas muaj ob peb puas pixels tej zaum yuav tsis tsim nyog yog hais tias tus puas pixels yog nyob ze rau txhua lwm yam. LCD panels kuj muaj tsis xws luag lub npe hu ua clouding (los yog tsawg dua ntau Mura), uas qhia txog cov sis tsis ncaj thaj ua rau thaj ntawm cov kev hloov nyob rau hauv luminance. Nws yog feem ntau pom nyob rau hauv qhov tsaus ntuj nti los yog dub tej thaj chaw uas tso tawm kom pom scenes.


Xoom-power (bistable) qhia

Lub zenithal bistable ntaus ntawv (ZBD), tsim los ntawm QinetiQ (hu ua dera), yuav khaws ib tug duab tsis muaj lub hwj chim. Lub muaju zaum yuav muaj nyob rau hauv ib ntawm ob ruaj khov dees ( "Dub" thiab "dawb") thiab lub hwj chim no xwb yuav tsum tau mus hloov cov duab. ZBD Lus yog ib tug spin-off tuam txhab QinetiQ uas manufactured ob grayscale thiab xim ZBD pab kiag li lawm. Kent Qhia kuj tsim ib tug "tsis muaj hwj chim" zaub uas siv polymer stabilized cholesteric kua siv lead ua (ChLCD). Nyob rau hauv 2009 Kent pom kev siv ntawm ib tug ChLCD los npog tag nrho saum npoo ntawm ib tug xov tooj txawb, uas nws hloov xim, thiab kom hais tias cov xim txawm thaum fais fab yog txiav tawm. Nyob rau hauv 2004 soj ntsuam ntawm lub University of Oxford pom ob tug tshiab hom zero-power bistable LCDs raws li Zenithal bistable hom kev kawm. Ob peb bistable technologies, xws li cov 360 ° BTN thiab cov bistable cholesteric, nyob ntawm seb tsuas yog nyob rau hauv lub tej thaj chaw ntawm cov kua siv lead ua (LC) thiab siv txheej txheem muaj zog Anchoring, nrog kawm tuab si lug films thiab LC mixtures zoo xws li cov tsoos monostable cov ntaub ntawv. Lwm yam bistable technologies, xws li BiNem technology, yog raws li tsuas yog nyob rau ntawm qhov chaw lub zog thiab xav tau kev muaj zog Anchoring cov ntaub ntawv.


Specifications

1. Resolution Lub daws teeb meem ntawm ib tug LCD yog qhia los ntawm tus xov tooj ntawm txhua thiab kab ntawm pixels (eg, 1024 × 768). Txhua pixel yog feem ntau muaj li 3 sub-pixels, ib tug liab, ib tug ntsuab, thiab ib tug xiav. Qhov no tau lawm ib tug ntawm ob peb nta ntawm LCD kev kawm uas tseem niaj hnub zoo li cov sib txawv designs. Txawm li cas los, muaj newer designs uas qhia sub-pixels nrog pixels thiab ntxiv Quattron uas sim nraaj kom cov ntaus nqi kev daws teeb meem ntawm ib tug zaub tsis ua lub txoos daws teeb meem, rau mixed tau.

2. Spatial kev kawm: Rau ib lub computer saib los yog ib txhia lwm cov zaub uas yog saib los ntawm ib tug heev nyob ze ze, kev daws teeb meem yog feem ntau qhia nyob rau hauv cov nqe lus ntawm dot suab los yog pixels ib nti, uas yog zoo ib yam nrog rau cov printing kev lag luam. Zaub ceev mas nws txawv ib daim ntawv thov, nrog televisions feem ntau muaj ib tug uas tsis muaj kev ceev rau long-deb saib thiab portable pab kiag li lawm muaj ib tug kev kub ceev ze-ntau nthuav dav. Cov Saib lub ntawm ib tug LCD tej zaum yuav ib qho tseem ceeb nyob rau ntawm cov zaub thiab cov kev siv, cov kev txwv ntawm tej yam zaub technologies txhais li cas cov zaub tsuas qhia meej ntawm tej yam cov ces kaum.

3. sab nqaij daim tawv kev ua tau zoo: lub nqaij daim tawv kev daws teeb meem ntawm ib tug LCD yog yuav ua li cas zoo nws yuav tso saib hloov dluab, los yog cov neeg thiab tus naj npawb ntawm cov sij hawm ib ob cov zaub thim cov ntaub ntawv nws muab no yog. LCD pixels tsis nyem rau / tawm ntawm ntas, li ntawd, LCD saib muaj tsis muaj refresh hob flicker tsis muaj teeb meem li cas uas tsis muaj lub refresh tus nqi. Tab sis ib tug qis refresh tus nqi yuav txhais li cas nrig txog kev pom artefacts li ghosting los yog smearing, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nrog ceev ceev mus dluab. Cov pixel teb lub sij hawm no kuj yog ib qho tseem ceeb, raws li tag nrho qhia muaj ib co xam qhovkev latency nyob rau hauv displaying ib cov duab uas yuav ua tau loj txaus los mus tsim nrig txog kev pom artifacts yog hais tias tus tso tawm cov duab hloov sai heev.

4. Xim kawm: Muaj ntau ntau cov ntsiab lus los piav qhia txog sib txawv ntawm cov xim ua tau zoo ntawm ib tug zaub. Xim gamut yog lub ntau yam ntawm cov xim uas yuav muab tso tawm kom, thiab xim tob, uas yog lub fineness uas cov xim ntau yog muab faib. Xim gamut yog ib tug ncaj rau pem hauv ntej feature, tab sis nws yog tsis tshua muaj sib tham nyob rau hauv marketing ntaub ntawv tsuas yog nyob rau kev theem. Muaj ib cov xim ntau yam uas tshaj cov ntsiab lus raug qhia nyob rau qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam twb tsis muaj cov kev pab cuam, yog li qhia xwb ua rau ua tsis pub dhau los hauv qab no lub ntau yam ntawm ib tug tej yam specification. Muaj tej yam rau LCD xim thiab xim tswj, xws li dawb taw tes thiab gamma kho, uas piav qhia txog yog xim dab tsi dawb yog thiab yuav ua li cas lub lwm yam xim muaj tso tawm txheeb ze rau dawb.

5. Brightness thiab sib piv piv: Zoo piv tus piv ntawm cov brightness ntawm ib tug tag nrho-on pixel mus rau ib tug tag nrho-off pixel. Lub LCD nws tus kheej tsuas yog ib tug teeb valve thiab tsis ua kom muaj teeb; lub teeb los los ntawm ib tug backlight uas yog tog twg los fluorescent los yog ib tug txheej ntawm LEDs. Brightness yog feem ntau hais raws li lub siab tshaj plaws teeb zis hauv lub LCD, uas muaj peev xwm sib txawv heev raws li nyob rau hauv lub transparency ntawm lub LCD thiab qhov kev ci ntawm lub backlight. Nyob rau hauv kev, zog yog ib qho zoo, tab sis muaj ib txwm ib tug luam-off ntawm brightness thiab lub hwj chim noj.


Zoo thiab tsis zoo

Zoo

1. heev compact, nyias thiab lub teeb, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv kev sib piv nrog bulky, hnyav CRT qhia.

2. Tsis tshua muaj zog noj. Nyob ntawm seb lub teeb zaub brightness thiab cov ntsiab lus tau tso tawm, cov laus CCFT backlit qauv feem ntau siv tsawg tshaj li ib nrab ntawm lub hwj chim ib CRT saib ntawm tib yam loj saib cheeb tsam yuav siv, thiab cov niaj hnub LED backlit qauv feem ntau siv 10-25% ntawm cov lub hwj chim ib CRT saib yuav siv.

3. Me tshav kub tawm txim liab thaum lub sij hawm kev lag luam, vim tsis muaj zog noj.

4. Tsis geometric distortion.

5. Tus tau muaj peev xwm kom muaj me me los yog tsis muaj "flicker" nyob rau backlight technology.

6. Feem ntau tsis muaj refresh-rate flicker, vim hais tias cov LCD pixels tuav lawv lub xeev ntawm refreshes (uas yog feem ntau yog ua nyob rau 200 Hz los yog sai, hais txog ntawm lub tswv yim refresh tus nqi).

7. Ntau thinner tshaj ib tug CRT saib.

8. Ntse duab uas tsis muaj kev los ntshav los yog smearing thaum ua ntawm haiv neeg daws teeb meem.

9. emits yuav luag tsis muaj undesirable electromagnetic tawg (nyob rau hauv lub tsawg tsawg zaus ntau yam), tsis zoo li ib tug CRT saib.

10. Yuav ua nyob rau hauv yuav luag txhua loj los sis tus duab.

11. No theoretical resolution limit. When multiple LCD panels are used together to create a single canvas, each additional panel increases the total resolution of the display, which is commonly called “stacked” resolution.

12. Can be made in large sizes of over 60-inch (150 cm) diagonal

13. Masking effect: the LCD grid can mask the effects of spatial and grayscale quantization, creating the illusion of higher image quality.

14. Unaffected by magnetic fields, including the Earth's.

15. As an inherently digital device, the LCD can natively display digital data from a DVI or HDMI connection without requiring conversion to analog. Some LCD panels have native fiber optic inputs in addition to DVI and HDMI.

16. Many LCD monitors are powered by a 12 V power supply, and if built into a computer can be powered by its 12 V power supply.

17. Can be made with very narrow frame borders, allowing multiple LCD screens to be arrayed side-by-side to make up what looks like one big screen.


tsis zoo

1. Limited viewing angle in some older or cheaper monitors, causing color, saturation, contrast and brightness to vary with user position, even within the intended viewing angle.

2. Uneven backlighting in some (mostly older) monitors, causing brightness distortion, especially toward the edges.

3. Black levels may not be as dark as required because individual liquid crystals cannot completely block all of the backlight from passing through.

4. Display motion blur on moving objects caused by slow response times (>8 ms) and eye-tracking on a sample-and-hold display, unless a strobing backlight is used. However, this strobing can cause eye-strain, as is noted next:

5. As of 2012, most implementations of LCD backlighting use pulse-width modulation (PWM) to dim the display, which makes the screen flicker more acutely (this does not mean visibly) than a CRT monitor at 85 Hz refresh rate would (this is because the entire screen is strobing on and off rather than a CRT's phosphor sustained dot which continually scans across the display, leaving some part of the display always lit), causing severe eye-strain for some people. Unfortunately, many of these people don't know that their eye-strain is being caused by the invisible strobe effect of PWM. This problem is worse on many LED backlit monitors, because the LEDs switch on and off faster than a CCFL lamp.

6. Only one native resolution. Displaying any other resolution either requires a video scaler, causing blurriness and jagged edges, or running the display at native resolution using 1:1 pixel mapping, causing the image either not to fill the screen (letterboxed display), or to run off the lower or right edges of the screen.

7. Fixed bit depth (also called "color depth"). Many cheaper LCDs are only able to display 262,000 colors. 8-bit S-IPS panels can display 16 million colors and have significantly better black level, but are expensive and have slower response time.

8. Low refresh rate. All but a few high-end monitors support no higher than 60 or 75 Hz; while this does not cause visible flicker due to the LCD panel's high internal refresh rate, the low input refresh rate limits the maximum frame-rate that can be displayed, affecting gaming and 3D graphics.

9. Input lag, because the LCD's A/D converter waits for each frame to be completely been output before "drawing" it to the LCD panel. Many LCD monitors do post-processing before displaying the image in an attempt to compensate for poor color fidelity, which adds an additional lag. Further, a video scaler must be used when displaying non-native resolutions, which adds yet more time lag. Scaling and post processing are usually done in a single chip on modern monitors, but each function that chip performs adds some delay. Some displays have a video gaming mode which disables all or most processing to reduce perceivable input lag.

10.Dead or stuck pixels may occur during manufacturing or after a period of use. A dead pixel will glow with color even on an all-black screen.

11. Subject to burn-in effect, although the cause differs from CRT and the effect may not be permanent, a static image can cause burn-in in a matter of hours in badly designed displays.

12. In a constant-on situation, thermalization may occur in case of bad thermal management, in which part of the screen has overheated and looks discolored compared to the rest of the screen.

13. Loss of brightness and much slower response times in low temperature environments. In sub-zero environments, LCD screens may cease to function without the use of supplemental heating.

14. Loss of contrast in high temperature environments.