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Microcontroller Kev sib koom siab dua

Microcontroller Kev sib koom siab dua

Mar 08, 2019

Micro-controllers yuav tsis siv lwm qhov chaw nyob los yog cov ntaub ntawv chaw nres tsheb thaum lawv nruab RAM thiab tsis nco lub cim xeeb ntawm tib nti li CPU. Siv tsawg pins, tus nti tau muab tso rau hauv ib qho me me, pheej yig pob.


Xyaw cov cim xeeb thiab lwm yam khoom ntawm ib tus ntiv tes thiab ntsuas lawv raws li chav tsev tsub kom tus nqi ntawm tus ntiv tes, tab sis feem ntau tshwm sim hauv cov nuj nqi tsis muaj nuj nqi ntawm cov txheej txheem hauv lub cev. Txawm hais tias tus nqi ntawm CPU uas muaj integrated peripherals yog ib qho me ntsis ntau tshaj tus nqi ntawm CPU thiab sab nrauv sab nraud, muaj tsawg dua chips feem ntau tso cai rau ib lub koomhaum me me thiab pheej yig dua, thiab txo cov haujlwm uas yuav tsum tau sib sau ua ke thiab kuaj xyuas lub rooj sib tham ntawm circuit Tsis tas li ntawd, yuav tsum tsis txhob txo tus nqi txhim kho rau lub rooj sib txoos tas.


Ib tug micro-xws li yog ib zaug xwb Circuit Court, feem ntau nrog cov nram qab no nta:


central processing unit - xws li me me thiab yooj yim 4-ntsis processors mus rau txoj kev 32-ntsis lossis 64-bit processors

nrov nco (RAM) rau cov ntaub ntawv cia

ROM, EPROM, EEPROM los sis Flash nco rau qhov kev zov me nyuam thiab kev khiav haujlwm kev ntsuas

discrete input thiab output cov khoom, tso cai los sis kuaj pom ntawm lub xeev xwm txheej ntawm ib tus neeg tus pin pob

Tawm tswv yim / tso zis xws li cov chaw nres nkoj (UARTs)

lwm cov kev sib txuas lus sib txuas xws li I²C, Serial Peripheral Interface thiab Cov Me Nyuam Tswj Network rau system interconnect

peripherals xws li timers, kev txee xwm txheej, PWM cov generators, thiab watchdog

moos generator - feem ntau yog ib qho oscillator rau lub quartz timing Crystal, resonator los yog RC Circuit

ntau muaj xws li analog-rau-digital converters, ib txhia muaj digital-rau-analog converters

hauv-qhov kev pab cuam hauv lub cajmeem thiab kev pabcuam hauv-circuit debugging

Qhov kev sib yeem sib dhos no thiaj li yog tsawg ntawm cov chips thiab qhov thaiv ntawm qhov thaiv thiab qhov chaw tswj hwm qhov chaw uas yuav tsum tsim kom muaj sib npaug tshuab uas siv cais chips. Txuas ntxiv, ntawm tus xov tooj tsawg tsawg li hauv particular, txhua tus pin yuav kis tau rau ob peb sab hauv nrog, nrog tus pin ua haujlwm xaiv los ntawm software. Qhov no tso cai rau ib feem uas siv rau hauv ntau hom kev siv ntau tshaj yog tias lub pins muaj txoj haujlwm tseem ceeb.


Micro-controllers tau muaj pov thawj los ua neeg nrov nrov hauv lub tshuab ua ke vim lawv cov kev taw qhia rau xyoo 1970s.


Ib co microcontrollers siv lub Harvard architecture: cais cov npav nco txog cov lus qhia thiab cov ntaub ntawv, uas cia nkag mus rau qhov chaw concurrently. Qhov twg siv Harvard architecture, kev qhia lo lus rau tus processor yuav txawv me ntsis tshaj qhov ntev ntawm lub cim xeeb nrog thiab cov npe; Piv txwv: 12-ntsis cov lus qhia siv nrog 8-ntsis cov ntaub ntawv sau npe.


Qhov kev txiav txim siab ntawm qhov twg ntawm daim ntawv nkag mus rau ib qho yog qhov nyuaj. Cov neeg muag khoom microcontroller feem ntau pauv cov kev khiav hauj lwm frequencies thiab tsim cov qauv tsim tawm lub sij hawm-rau-kev lag luam ntawm lawv cov neeg muas zaub thiab tag nrho txo nqi them nqi. Manufacturers yuav tsum sib npaug qhov xav tau los txo cov chip me me tiv thaiv ntxiv functionality.


Microcontroller architectures sib txawv. Qee qhov qauv muaj microprocessor cores, nrog rau ib los yog ntau dua ROM, RAM, los sis I / O functions mus rau hauv pob. Lwm cov qauv tsim muaj lub hom phiaj ua rau kev tswj cov ntawv. Cov kev qhia tawm micro-kev qhia feem ntau muaj ntau cov lus qhia npaj rau me ntsis kev lag luam (ua haujlwm me ntsis-ua haujlwm) los tswj cov kev pab cuam ntau dua. [27] Piv txwv li, ib lub tshuab hom phiaj yuav xav tau ob peb cov lus qhia kom ntsuam xyuas me ntsis hauv qhov chaw sau npe thiab ceg yog me ntsis teeb, qhov twg qhov chaw zov me nyuam muaj peev xwm muaj kev qhia tib yam nkaus.


Microcontrollers feem ntau tsis muaj ib tug lej coprocessor, yog li floating point arithmetic yog ua los ntawm software. Txawm li cas los xij, qee qhov kev tsim qauv tsis ntev los no muaj xws li FPU thiab DSP qhov ua kom zoo dua. Ib qho piv txwv yuav yog Microchip's PIC32 hauv MIPS raws li kab.