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Microprocessor keeb kwm 16-ntsis designs

Mar 09, 2019

Thawj thawj ntu 16-ntsis microprocessor yog lub National Semiconductor IMP-16, pib thaum ntxov xyoo 1973. Lub 8-ntsis version ntawm chipset tau pib rau xyoo 1974 raws li IMP-8.


Lwm cov ntu 16-ntsis microprocessors muaj xws li ib lub Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) uas siv hauv LSI-11 OEM pawg thawj coj thiab PDAP 11/03 minicomputer-thiab Fairchild Semiconductor MicroFlame 9440, nkawd pib thaum xyoo 1975-76. Hauv xyoo 1975, Lub Tebchaws tau pib thawj 16-ntsis ib leeg-nti microprocessor, National Semiconductor PACE, uas tom qab ntawd ua raws NMOS version, INS8900.


Ib qho ntxiv thaum ib leeg-nti 16-ntsis microprocessor yog TI tus TMS 9900, uas yog tau tshaj li lawv cov kab TI-990 ntawm minicomputers. Lub 9900 tau siv nyob rau hauv TI 990/4 minicomputer, Texas Instrument TI-99 / 4A lub computer hauv tsev, thiab TM990 ntawm OEM microcomputer boards. Lub ntim tau ntim rau hauv ib lub pob loj loj 64-pin DIP pob, hos 8-ntsis microprocessors xws li Intel 8080 siv ntau hom, me, thiab tsis tshua kim yas 40-pin DIP. Raws li TMS 9980, tau tsim los sib tw nrog Intel 8080, muaj cov ntawv qhia TI 990 16-teev, siv ib lub hnab yas 40-pin, txav cov ntaub 8 khoom rau ib lub sij hawm, tab sis tsuas yog tuaj chaw nyob xwb 16 KB. Ib tug thib peb nti, lub TMS 9995, yog ib tug qauv tshiab. Tsev neeg tom qab nthuav dav ntxiv nrog rau 99105 thiab 99110.


Lub chaw tsim tsim qauv ntawm Western Design Centre (WDC) qhia txog CMOS 65816 16-ntsis txawj tej yam ntxiv ntawm WDC CMOS 65C02 hauv 1984. Lub 65816 16-ntsis microprocessor yog cov tub ntxhais ntawm Apple IIgs thiab tom qab Super Nintendo Lom ze System, ua nws yog ib qho ntawm feem ntau nrov 16-ntsis designs ntawm txhua lub sijhawm.


Intel "upsized" lawv 8080 tsim rau hauv 16-ntsis Intel 8086, thawj tus tswv cuab ntawm x 86 tsev neeg, uas powers feem ntau PC hom computers. Intel tau qhia 8086 ua ib txoj kev siv nyiaj ntau ntawm kev siv tshuab ntawm 8080, thiab ua tiav hauv kev lag luam ntau ntawm qhov chaw ntawd. Lub 8088, ib version ntawm 8086 uas siv lub npav 8-ntsis lwm qhov chaw, yog tus microprocessor nyob hauv thawj IBM PC. Intel ces tso tawm 80186 thiab 80188, lub 80286 thiab, nyob rau hauv 1985, 32-ntsis 80386, cementing lawv cov PC ua lag luam dominance nrog processor tsev neeg rov qab compatibility. Tus 80186 thiab 80188 yog cov qauv tseem ceeb ntawm 8086 thiab 8088, nrog rau qee qhov onboard peripherals thiab ob peb cov lus qhia tshiab. Txawm hais tias Intel 80186 thiab 80188 tsis siv nyob rau hauv IBM PC hom tsim, [dubious - sib tham] ob qhov qub versions ntawm NEC, V20 thiab V30 heev. Lub 8086 thiab cov successors tau tsim ib qho tab sis muaj kev txwv ntawm kev nco nco, thaum 80286 pib ua ib ntu puv ntu nruab nrab ntawm lub chaw nruab nrab ntawm lub cim xeeb (MMU). Tus 80386 pib ua qauv 32-ntsis nco nrog kev tswj hwm paged.


Lub 16 xuaj moos Intel x86 processors mus txog thiab nrog rau 80386 tsis suav nrog cov floating-point units (FPUs). Intel tau pib qhia 8087, 80187, 80287 thiab 80387 lej coprocessors los kho qhov tshuab ua ntu nruab nrab ntawm phab ntsa nruab nrab thiab kev ua haujlwm ua haujlwm rau 8086 txog 80386 CPUs. Tus 8087 ua haujlwm nrog 8086/8088 thiab 80186/80188, [38] 80187 ua haujlwm nrog 80186 tabsis tsis yog 80188, [39] 80286 ua haujlwm nrog 80286 thiab 80387 ua haujlwm nrog 80386. Lub sijhawm ua ke ntawm ib lub x 86 CPU thiab ib qho x87 ib qho kev sib txuas lus rau ib lub tshuab hlwb hlau sib npaug; ob lub chips yog programmed ua ib chav tsev uas siv ib qho kev qhia ua ke nkaus xwb. [40] Tus 8087 thiab 80187 coprocessors yog txuas nrog rau cov ntaub ntawv thiab chaw nyob ntawm cov tsheb npav ntawm lawv cov niam txiv processor thiab ncaj nraim cov lus qhia rau lawv. Tus 80287 thiab 80387 coprocessors interfaced mus rau CPU los ntawm I / O cov chaw nres nkoj hauv CPU qhov chaw nyob, qhov no yog pob tshab rau qhov kev pab cuam, uas tsis xav paub txog lossis nkag mus rau cov chaw nres nkoj I / O ncaj qha; qhov kev zov me nyuam nkag mus rau tus xib fwb thiab cov ntawv sau npe los ntawm cov kev qhia ntawv tshwj xeeb.