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Microprocessor keeb kwm 32-ntsis designs

Mar 09, 2019

16-ntsis designs tau tsuas yog nyob rau hauv kev ua lag luam luv luv thaum 32-ntsis kev siv pib tshwm.


Qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm 32-ntsis designs yog lub Motorola MC68000, pib hauv 1979. Lub 68k, raws li nws paub dav dav, muaj 32-ntsis cov npe sau nyob rau hauv nws lub programming qauv tab sis siv 16-ntsis nrog cov ntaub ntawv paths, peb 16-ntsis Arithmetic Logic Units, thiab daim npav 16-npav sab nraud (los txo tus naj npawb suav), thiab externally txaus siab tsuas yog 24-ntsis chaw nyob (hauv nws tau ua haujlwm nrog 32 ntsis chaw nyob). Hauv PC-based IBM-sib npaug mainframes MC68000 sab hauv microcode raug hloov kho kom pom zoo rau 32-ntsis System / 370 IBM mainframe. Motorola feem ntau piav nws li 16-ntsis processor. Ua ke nrog kev kawm siab, loj (16 megabytes los yog 224 bytes) nco chaw thiab haum pheej yig ua nws nyiam tshaj CPU tsim ntawm nws chav kawm. Cov kua Lisa thiab Macintosh tsim tau siv ntawm 68000, raws li tau ua tus tswv tsev ntawm lwm cov qauv tsim nyob rau hauv nruab nrab xyoo 1980s, nrog rau Atari ST thiab Commodore Amiga.


Lub ntiaj teb thawj zaug ib ntus ntawm 32-ntsis microprocessor, nrog 32-ntsis cov ntaub ntawv paths, 32-npav, thiab 32-ntsis chaw nyob, yog AT & T Tswb Labs BELLMAC-32A, nrog rau kev kuaj thawj zaug hauv xyoo 1980, thiab ntau lawm hauv 1982 . [42] [43] Tom qab lub koom haum AT & T hauv xyoo 1984, nws tau muab peb lub npe hu ua Peb 32000 (PEB rau Western Fais), thiab muaj ob lub cim ntxiv, QHOV 32100 thiab WE 32200. Cov microprocessors tau siv hauv AT & T 3B5 thiab 3B15 minicomputers; nyob rau hauv 3B2, lub ntiaj teb thawj desktop super microcomputer; nyob rau hauv "Khub", lub ntiaj teb thawj 32-ntsis lub laptop computer; thiab nyob rau hauv "Alexander", lub ntiaj teb thawj phau me-sized super microcomputer, featuring ROM-pob nco cartridges zoo ib yam li hnub no gaming consoles. Tag nrho cov kev khiav dej num khiav los ntawm UNIX System V operating system.


Thawj cov lag luam, ib nti, tag nrho 32-ntsis microprocessor muaj nyob rau hauv kev ua lag luam yog HP FOCUS.


Intel thawj 32-ntsis microprocessor yog lub iAPX 432, uas yog nkag tau hauv xyoo 1981, tab sis tsis yog qhov kev lag luam tau zoo. Nws muaj peev xwm ua tau raws li cov cuab yeej los ntawm cov cuab yeej cuab tam, tab sis tsis zoo rau piv rau architectures xws li Intel tus kheej 80286 (pib xyoo 1982), uas yog plaub zaug raws li cov kev ntsuas raug hloov. Txawm li cas los xij, cov qhab nia ntawm IAPX432 yog ib nrab vim yog rushed thiab vim li no sub compact Ada compiler.


Motorola txoj kev vam meej nrog 68000 coj mus rau MC68010, uas ntxiv virtual nco yug. Lub MC68020, pib hauv xyoo 1984 ntxiv tag nrho 32-ntsis cov ntaub ntawv thiab chaw nyob tsheb npav. Lub 68020 tau ua nrov nrov nyob rau hauv Unix supermicrocomputer lag luam, thiab ntau lub tuam txhab me me (xws li, Altos, Charles River Data Systems, Cromemco) ua cov qauv duab me me. Lub MC68030 tau ua ke tom ntej, kev txhim kho raws cov qauv tsim yav dhau los los ntawm kev sib koom tes MMU rau hauv tus ntiv tes. Qhov kev vam meej tau ua tiav txuas mus rau MC68040, uas suav nrog FPU rau kev ua lej zoo dua. Lub 68050 ua tsis tau raws li nws lub homphiaj kev ua haujlwm thiab tsis raug tso tawm, thiab qhov rov qab ua tiav MC68060 raug tso tawm rau hauv kev ua lag luam uas muaj cov qauv RISC sai dua. Lub 68k tsev neeg tau siv los ntawm kev siv thaum ntxov 1990s.


Lwm cov tuam txhab lag luam loj tsim qhov 68020 thiab ua raws li cov khoom siv hauv cov khoom siv. Ntawm ib qho taw qhia, muaj ntau tshaj 68020s hauv cov khoom siv kos nruab plaws muaj cov Intel Pentiums hauv PCs. ColdFire processor cores yog derivatives ntawm lub 68020.


Lub sijhawm no (ntxov rau xyoo 1980s), National Semiconductor tau ua ib lub tswv yim zoo li 16-ntsis, 32-ntsis microprocessor hu ua NS 16032 (tom qab ntawd renamed 32016), tag nrho 32-ntsis version hu ua NS 32032. Tom qab ntawd, National Semiconductor ua tus NS 32132, uas tau tso cai rau ob lub CPU los nyob rau tib lub npav cim xeeb nrog ua rau kev sib tw. Lub NS32016 / 32 outperformed MC68000 / 10, tab sis tus NS32332-uas tuaj txog ntawm tib lub sij hawm thaum MC68020-tsis muaj kev ua tau txaus. Peb lub cim nti, lub NS32532, txawv. Nws tau hais txog ob qhov kev ua tau zoo ntawm MC68030, uas tau muab tso tawm rau tib lub sijhawm. Cov tsos ntawm RISC processors zoo li lub AM29000 thiab MC88000 (tam sim no ob leeg tuag) cuam tshuam cov architecture ntawm tus ntxhais kawg nkaus, tus NS32764. Technically advanced-nrog lub superscalar RISC core, 64-ntsis tsheb thauj mus, thiab hauv overclocked hauv-nws kuj tseem ua txhaum Series 32000 cov lus qhia los ntawm kev txhais cov lus tseeb.


Thaum National Semiconductor txiav txim siab tawm hauv Unix lag luam, tus nti raug kho dua tshiab rau hauv Swordfish Embedded processor nrog ib txheej ntawm cov nti peripherals. Tus nti ua rau nws kim heev rau lub lag luam luam muag laser thiab raug tua. Cov pab neeg tsim tau mus rau Intel thiab muaj tsim lub Pentium processor, uas zoo li NS32764 tseem ceeb hauv lawv tus kheej. Kev loj hlob ntawm Series 32000 yog nyob hauv laser luam ntawv kev lag luam, qhov twg NS32CG16 nrog microcoded BitBlt cov lus qhia tau zoo heev / kev ua tau zoo thiab tau txais los ntawm cov tuam txhab loj xws li Canon. Los ntawm nruab nrab xyoo 1980s, Sequent qhia thawj SMP neeg ua hauj lwm-chav kawm siv computer NS 32032. Qhov no yog ib qho ntawm ob peb lub yeej, thiab nws tau ploj mus rau xyoo 1980s. Lub MIPS R2000 (1984) thiab R3000 (1989) tau ua tiav zoo 32-ntsis RISC microprocessors. Lawv tau siv cov haujlwm ua haujlwm high-end thiab cov SRI ntawm cov servers, nrog rau lwm cov. Lwm cov qauv tsim muaj cov Zilog Z80000, uas tuaj txog lig dhau mus rau kev ua lag luam kom tuaj yeem sawv ntsug thiab tau sai sai.


Lub caj NPAB xub pib nyob rau hauv 1985. Qhov no yog lub RISC processor tsim, uas muaj txij li tau tuaj rau dominate lub 32-ntsis kos duab nruab nrab ntawm qhov chaw loj ntawm nws qhov kev siv zog, nws daim ntawv tso cai, thiab nws txoj kev xaiv ntawm cov cuab yeej tawm tshiab. Cov chaw lag luam hluav taws xob feem ntau yog daim ntawv tso cai thiab muab coj los ua ke rau lawv tus kheej hauv cov khoom ntiag tug; tsuas yog ob peb tug neeg muag khoom thiaj tau kev tso cai los hloov cov caj NPAB. Feem ntau cov xov tooj ntawm tes nrog rau ARM processor, ua ntau yam ntawm lwm yam khoom. Muaj cov microcontroller-oriented ARM cores tsis muaj kev txhawb nqa nyiaj virtual, nrog rau cov khoom siv nrog ntau yam (SMP) daim ntawv tso npe nrog virtual nco.


Los ntawm 1993 txog 2003, lub 32-ntsis x 86 architectures los ua haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv desktop, laptop, thiab kev lag luam tus neeg lag luam, thiab cov microprocessors no ua tau sai thiab ntau dua. Intel tau tso cai thaum ntxov ntawm lub architecture mus rau lwm lub tuam txhab, tab sis tsis yws mus tso cai rau Pentium, yog li AMD thiab Cyrix ua tom qab versions ntawm lub architecture raws lawv tus kheej designs. Thaum lub sij hawm sib tw, cov txheej txheem no muaj zog hauv kev sib txig (transistor suav) thiab kev muaj peev xwm (cov lus qhia / thib ob) los ntawm yam tsawg kawg uas peb txiav txim ntawm qhov loj. Intel's Pentium kab yog zaum kawg nto moo tshaj plaws thiab pom tau 32-ntsis processor qauv, tsawg kawg nrog cov pej xeem ntawm sab.