Tsev > Exhibition > Ntsiab lus

Microprocessor History 8-ntsis designs

Mar 09, 2019

Intel 4004 ua raws li nyob rau hauv 1972 los ntawm Intel 8008, lub ntiaj teb thawj 8-ntsis microprocessor. Lub 8008 tsis yog, txawm li cas los, qhov kev txuas ntxiv ntawm 4004 tsim, tab sis yog qhov ua tiav ntawm qhov kev tsim tshwj xeeb ntawm Intel, ntawm ib qho kev cog lus nrog Computer Terminals Corporation, ntawm San Antonio TX, rau lub ntim rau lub davhlau ya nyob twg lawv tau tsim, [35] Datapoint 2200-txoj hauv kev ntawm qhov kev tsim tuaj tsis yog los ntawm Intel tiam sis los ntawm CTC. Hauv xyoo 1968, CTC tus Vic Poj thiab Harry Pyle tau tsim cov qauv tsim los ntawm kev qhia ntawv thiab kev lag luam ntawm tus processor. Xyoo 1969, CTC tau sib cog lus ob lub tuam txhab, Intel thiab Texas Instruments, los ua ib qho kev sib tw ua ke, hu ua CTC 1201. Nyob rau xyoo 1970 los yog thaum xyoo 1971, TI nqes tawm tsis muaj peev xwm ua ib qho kev txhim khu. Xyoo 1970, nrog Intel tsis tau xa ib sab, CTC xaiv siv lawv tus kheej siv rau hauv Datapoint 2200, siv cov TTL logic hloov (yog li thawj lub tshuab khiav "8008 code" tsis yog qhov tseeb ntawm microprocessor txhua thiab tau xa ib xyoo dhau los). Intel's version ntawm lub 1201 microprocessor tuaj txog lig 1971, tab sis lig dhau lawm, qeeb, thiab yuav tsum tau muaj ib tug xov tooj ntawm cov kev txhawb ntxiv chips. CTC tsis txaus siab siv nws. Lub CTC tau ua ntawv cog lus rau Intel rau lub chip, thiab yuav tau them lawv $ 50,000 (sib npaug rau $ 309,326 hauv xyoo 2018) rau lawv txoj haujlwm tsim. Kom tsis txhob them rau ib lub ntiv tes lawv tsis xav (thiab siv tsis tau), CTC tso tawm Intel ntawm lawv daim ntawv cog lus thiab pub lawv siv cov qauv siv dawb. Intel ua lag luam nws li 8008 nyob rau lub Plaub Hlis 1972, ua lub ntiaj teb 8-ntsis microprocessor. Nws yog lub hauv paus rau lub npe hu ua "Mark-8" lub computer tshaj tawm rau hauv Xov Xwm Radio-Electronics hauv xyoo 1974. Lub tshuab no muaj 8-npav cov ntaub ntawv thiab 14-npav chaw nyob.


Lub 8008 yog lub hauv ntej rau Intel 8080 zoo (1974), uas muaj kev ua tau zoo dua 8008 thiab yuav tsum tau tsawg dua chips. Federico Faggin xeeb thiab tsim nws siv high voltage N channel MOS. Lub Zilog Z80 (1976) kuj yog siv Faggin tsim, siv cov neeg tsis tshua muaj hluav taws xob N nrog cov roj teeb ntsaws thiab kev ua haujlwm ntawm Intel 8-ntsis processors: tag nrho tsim los nrog tus txheej txheem Faggin tsim rau 4004. Motorola tso tawm rau hauv lub lag luam 6800 thaum lub Yim Hli 1974, thiab xws li MOS Technology 6502 hauv xyoo 1975 (ob leeg tsim los ntawm tib cov tib neeg). Lub tsev 6502 tau sib tw nrog cov Z80 nyob rau xyoo 1980s.


Ib qho nqi tsawg tsawg, cov ntim khoom me me, kev caij tsheb npav yooj yim, thiab qee zaus kev sib txuas lus ntawm kev sib txuas ntxiv (xws li Z80 qhov chaw tshiab kho tshiab) hloov lub tsev "lub kiv puag ncig" kom ceev ceev hauv thawj xyoo 1980s. Qhov no tau muab cov khoom lag luam pheej yig li Sinclair ZX81, uas muag rau US $ 99 (sib npaug rau $ 272.83 ntawm xyoo 2018). Ib qho kev hloov ntawm 6502, MOS Technology 6510 tau siv nyob hauv Commodore 64 thiab tseem muaj lwm yam kev hloov, 8502, powered Commodore 128.


Western Design Center, Inc (WDC) tau qhia txog CMOS WDC 65C02 hauv xyoo 1982 thiab tau tso cai rau cov qauv siv rau ntau lub tuam txhab. Nws tau siv los ua CPU hauv Apple IIe thiab IIc tus kheej computers nrog rau kev kho mob qib implantable pacemakers thiab defibrillators, automotive, industrial thiab consumer devices. WDC pioneered qhov kev tso cai ntawm microprocessor designs, tom qab ntawd yog ARM (32-ntsis) thiab lwm tus neeg zov me nyuam cov khoom ntiag tug (IP) cov tub lag luam hauv xyoo 1990s.


Motorola qhia txog MC6809 hauv xyoo 1978. Nws yog ib qho ua tau zoo thiab muaj kev xav zoo-8-ntsis tsim uas yog qhov chaw tshaj li 6800, thiab siv los siv hom phiaj lim hnyav (tom qab 16-ntsis microprocessors feem ntau siv microcode rau qee yam, raws li Cov kev tsim ntawm CISC tsim tau dhau los ua rau kev sib tw tsis muaj teeb meem.


Ib qho ntxiv thaum ntxov 8-ntsis microprocessor yog lub Signetics 2650, uas nyiam luv luv nqi siab vim nws txoj kev qhia ntawv tshiab thiab muaj zog.


Lub seminal microprocessor nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb ntawm lub chaw khiav dej num yog RCA's RCA 1802 (aka CDP1802, RCA COSMAC) (pib xyoo 1976), uas tau siv rau ntawm lub Rooj Tswjhwm Saib Galileo rau Jupiter (pib 1989, tuaj txog 1995). RCA COSMAC yog thawj tus neeg siv CMOS technology. CDP1802 tau siv vim hais tias nws yuav khiav ntawm lub hwj chim tsis tshua muaj zog, thiab vim tias muaj ntau hom khoom tsim muaj cov txheej txheem tshwj xeeb ntau lawm, silicon rau sapphire (SOS), uas tau muab kev tiv thaiv zoo tshaj tiv thaiv kabmob cosmic thiab electrostatic discharge dua li lwm yam processor ntawm lub era. Yog li, SOS version ntawm 1802 tau hais tias yog thawj lub xov tooj sib-zog microprocessor.


Lub RCA 1802 tau tsim cov qauv zoo li qub, txhais hais tias lub sij hawm tsawg tshaj plaws yuav tsum tau ua kom qis qis, lossis txawm nres. Qhov no cia tus Galileo kos duab siv hluav taws xob tsawg kawg nkaus hluav taws xob ntev ntev tsis ncav ntawm lub voyage. Timers los yog cov sensors yuav tsum tau ua haujlwm rau tus processor hauv lub sijhawm rau kev ua haujlwm tseem ceeb, xws li kev qhia tshiab, kev tswj tus cwj pwm, cov ntaub ntawv tshaaj, thiab xov tooj cua sib txuas lus. Tam sim no versions ntawm Western Design Centre 65C02 thiab 65C816 muaj cov cug dej zoo li qub, thiab yog li khaws cov ntaub ntawv txawm tias lub moos yog kiag li nres.