Tsev > Exhibition > Ntsiab lus

Cov Haujlwm Keeb Kwm Txog Keeb Kwm Ua Ntej Hnub Pib

Mar 09, 2019

Peb lub luag haujlwm tau muab cov microprocessor qhia txog tib lub sij hawm: Garrett AiResearch's Central Air Data Computer (CADC), Texas Instruments 'TMS 1000 (Cuaj Hlis 1971) thiab Intel's 4004 (Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 1971, raws li 1969 Busicom tsim dhau los). Arguably, Four-Phase Systems AL1 microprocessor kuj tau xa hauv 1969.


CADC

Xyoo 1968, Garrett AiResearch (uas yog tus kws tsim tawm qauv Ray Holt thiab Steve Geller) tau raug caw tuaj koom tsim lub tshuab computer los sib tw nrog lub tshuab electromechanical ces nyob hauv txoj kev loj hlob rau hauv lub davhlau tswj hwm hauv computer hauv US Navy tus tshiab F-14 Tomcat fighter. Tus tsim tau tiav los ntawm 1970, thiab siv MOS-based chipset ua tus tub ntxhais CPU. Tus qauv tsim (kwv yees li 20 npaug) tsawg dua thiab ntau yam ntxiv txhim khu kev tshaj li lub tshuab kho tshuab nws tawm tsam, thiab tau siv rau txhua tus qauv Tomcat thaum ntxov. Qhov no muaj nyob rau hauv "20-ntsis, pipelined, parallel multi-microprocessor". Cov Navy tsis kam tso cai rau cov qauv tsim tawm txog 1997. Vim li no cov CADC, thiab siv MP944 chipset nws siv, yog tsis paub zoo. Ray Holt's autobiographical zaj dab neeg ntawm no tsim thiab kev loj hlob yog nthuav tawm nyob rau hauv phau ntawv: Tus Neeg Txawj Kev Tsav Tsheb. [14] [15].


Ray Holt kawm tiav los ntawm University of California Polytechnic hauv xyoo 1968, thiab pib nws lub computer tsim haujlwm nrog CADC. Los ntawm nws txoj kev nkag mus, nws tau raug quab yuam kom txog thaum 1998 thaum Holt cov lus thov, Teb Chaws Asmeskas Navy tau tso cai rau cov ntaub ntawv rau pej xeem lub npe. Txij thaum ntawd los tib neeg [leej twg?] Tau sib cav txog seb qhov no yog thawj cov microprocessor. Holt tau hais tias tsis muaj leej twg tau piv cov microprocessor nrog cov uas tuaj tom qab. [16] Raws li Parab li al. (2007),

Cov ntaub ntawv tshawb fawb thiab ntaub ntawv luam tawm ib ncig 1971 qhia tias MP944 tus neeg siv rau kev siv F-14 Tomcat aircraft ntawm Teb Chaws Asmeskas Navy yog tus thawj microprocessor. Txawm li cas los xij, nws tsis yog ib leeg-chip processor, zoo li tsis yog Intel 4004 - nkawd ob leeg zoo li cov txheej txheem sib luag ntawm cov khoom siv uas koj siv tau los ua ib hom ntawv ua tiav. Nws muaj CPU, RAM, ROM, thiab ob lwm daim chips xws li Intel 4004. Nws tau tsim los ntawm tib lub tshuab P-channel, ua haujlwm ntawm cov tub rog kev ua haujlwm thiab muaj cov chips loj - ib qho computer tsim qauv tsim los ntawm txhua tus qauv. Nws tsim tau hais tias qhov loj ua ntej dhau Intel, thiab ob xyoos dhau los. Nws tau ua haujlwm thiab tau ya hauv F-14 thaum Intel 4004 tau tshaj tawm. Nws qhia tau hais tias hnub no lub ntsiab lus ntawm kev lag luam ntawm converging DSP-microcontroller architectures twb pib hauv 1971. [17]


Lub convergence ntawm DSP thiab microcontroller architectures yog hu ua cov teeb liab digital.


Plaub Ntej Systems AL1 (1969)

Lub Plaub Ntug Systems AL1 yog 8-ntsis ntsis hle nti muaj yim lub npe thiab ib tus ALU [19] Nws tau tsim los ntawm Lee Boysel hauv xyoo 1969. [20] [21] [22] Thaum lub sijhawm ntawd, nws tsim ib feem ntawm 9-nti, 24-npij CPU nrog peb AL1s, tab sis tom qab ntawd hu ua tus microprocessor thaum, thaum xyoo 1990 los ntawm Texas Instruments, ib qho kev ua qauv tsim tau los ua tus tib AL1 ntawm lub hoob qhuab qhia ua lub computer, nrog RAM, ROM, thiab ib qho khoom siv tawm tswv yim.


Pico / General Instrument

Hauv xyoo 1971, Pico Electronics [24] thiab General Instrument (GI) tau qhia lawv thawj zaug hauv ICs, tus chip xam kom tiav IC rau Monroe / Litton Royal Digital III calculator. Tus ntiv tes no kuj tseem tuaj yeem pheej hais tias yog ib qho ntawm cov thawj microprocessors los yog cov microcontrollers muaj ROM, RAM thiab RISC cov ntawv qhia rau-nti. Qhov layout rau plaub txheej ntawm PMOS txheej txheem yog txhais tes kos rau ntawm x 500 xuab moos ntawm cov zaj duab xis mylar, ib txoj hauj lwm tseem ceeb thaum lub sij hawm muab qhov nyuaj ntawm tus nti.


Pico yog ib tug spinout los ntawm tsib GI tsim engineers uas nws lub zeem muag yog tsim los tsim ib qho ntawm tus chip calculator ICs. Lawv tau muaj cov qauv tsim yav dhau los rau ntau lub laij lej tshuab nrog GI thiab Marconi-Elliott. Lub tswv yim tseem ceeb ntawm pawg neeg tau ua los ntawm Elliott Automation los tsim kom muaj 8-ntsis computer hauv MOS thiab tau pab tsim MOS Research Laboratory hauv Glenrothes, Scotland thaum xyoo 1967.


Cov tshuab xam zauv tau ua qhov loj tshaj plaws rau kev lag luam rau cov khoom siv hluav taws xob kom Pico thiab GI mus tau zoo hauv qhov kev lag luam burgeoning. GI txuas ntxiv rau innovation hauv microprocessors thiab microcontrollers nrog cov khoom xws li CP1600, IOB1680 thiab PIC1650. [26] Nyob rau hauv 1987, lub lag luam GI Microelectronics yog spun rau hauv Microchip PIC microcontroller lag luam.


Intel 4004 (1971)

Intel 4004 feem ntau yog suav tias yog thawj tus neeg muaj khoom lag luam, [27] [28] thiab them tus nqi US $ 60 (sib npaug rau $ 371.19 rau xyoo 2018). [29] Thawj qhov kev tshaj xo rau 4004 yog sau hnub tim 15 lub Kaum Ib Hlis Ntuj 1971 thiab tshwm sim hauv Cov Xov Xwm Electronic. Cov microprocessor tau tsim los ntawm ib pab pawg kws Italian engineer Federico Faggin, American engineers Marcian Hoff thiab Stanley Mazor, thiab Japanese engineer Masatoshi Shima. [30]


Qhov project uas ua rau 4004 pib txij thaum 1969, thaum Busicom, lub chaw lag luam Japanese tshuab xam phaj, tau nug Intel kom tsim tau ib lub chipset rau kev ua haujlwm siab ua haujlwm. Busicom lub qub tsim hu ua rau ib tug programable nti teem raws ntawm xya txawv chips. Peb ntawm daim tawv nqaij los ua ib qho tshwj xeeb-CPU nrog nws qhov kev zov me nyuam khaws cia hauv ROM thiab nws cov ntaub ntawv khaws tseg rau hauv kev ua haujlwm register-write memory. Ted Hoff, Intel engineer rau kev ntsuam xyuas qhov project, ntseeg tau tias Busicom tsim yuav tsum yooj yim los ntawm kev siv dynamic RAM cia rau cov ntaub ntawv, tsis yog hloov chaw sau npe, thiab ntau tus qauv ntawm cov qauv ntawm CPU. Hoff tuaj nrog lub tswv yim plaub-nti lub tswv yim: lub tshuab chip rau khaws cia cov kev pab cuam, dynamic RAM nti rau khaws cia cov ntaub ntawv, ib qho yooj yim I / O ntaus ntawv thiab chav nruab nrab ntawm 4-ntsis (CPU). Txawm hais tias tsis yog tus chip designer, nws xav tias CPU yuav tsum ua ke rau hauv ib qho ntiv tes, tab sis raws li nws tsis muaj kev paub paub-yuav ua li cas lub tswv yim tseem cia li xav kom lub sij hawm ua.



Thawj microprocessor los ntawm Intel, tus 4004.


Silicon thiab germanium alloy rau microprocessors

Thaum lub architecture thiab specifications ntawm lub MCS-4 los ntawm kev sib cuam tshuam ntawm Hoff nrog Stanley Mazor, tus kws tshaj lij software rau nws, thiab Busicom engineer Masatoshi Shima, thaum lub sij hawm 1969, Mazor thiab Hoff tsiv mus rau lwm lub projects. Lub Plaub Hlis xyoo 1970, Intel ntiav Italian engineer Federico Faggin ua ib tug thawj coj, ib qho kev txav uas kawg ua qhov kev sib tw ntawm CPU kawg nkaus (Ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm Shima ua tus tsim los ntawm Busicom tshuab xam zauv thiab pab Faggin thaum thawj rau lub hli ntawm qhov kev coj ua). Faggin, leej twg yog tus tsim lub pob zeb loj (SGT) thaum xyoo 1968 ntawm Fairchild Semiconductor [31] thiab tsim kom muaj lub ntiaj teb ua thawj zaug kev lag luam nrog SGT, Fairchild 3708, muaj keeb kwm muaj tseeb los ua cov txheej txheem ua dav hom microprocessor. Vim tias SGT yog nws tus kheej invention, Faggin kuj siv nws los tsim nws txoj kev vib this rau random logic tsim uas ua rau nws ua tau rau siv ib zaug xwb nti CPU nrog txoj kev ceev, fais faib thiab nqi. Tus manager ntawm Intel lub MOS Design Department yog Leslie L. Vadász thaum lub sijhawm ntawm MCS-4 kev loj hlob, tiam sis Vadász qhov kev xav tau teem meej rau kev lag luam hauv nruab nrab ntawm semiconductor nco ces nws tawm ntawm cov thawj coj thiab kev tswj ntawm qhov project MCS-4 rau Faggin , leej twg yog lub luag hauj lwm rau txoj hau kev ua 4004 qhov project rau nws qhov kev paub. Ntau qhov chaw ntawm 4004 raug xa mus rau Busicom thaum lub Peb Hlis 1971 thiab xa mus rau lwm cov neeg tau txais kev lig kev cai nyob rau xyoo 1971.



Gilbert Hyatt

Gilbert Hyatt tau txais ib daim ntawv lees paub hais txog kev tsim ua ntej-sib tham nrog TI thiab Intel, piav txog "microcontroller". Lub sij hawm patent twb tsis dhau lawm, tab sis tsis ua ntej cov nyiaj tau txais nyiaj tau them tawm