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Microprocessor History Muaj ntau cov qauv tsim

Mar 09, 2019

Ib qho kev sib txawv ntawm kev txhim kho lub computer kev ua haujlwm yog ntxiv rau kev ua haujlwm ntxiv, xws li hauv ntau hom kev tsim ntau yam, uas tau nrov nyob rau hauv servers thiab cov chaw ua haujlwm txij thaum xyoo 1990. Kev ua haujlwm nrog Moore txoj cai yog ua kom muaj kev nyuab siab dua vim kev sib tw ua technology ua rau lawv lub cev muaj kev txwv. Nyob rau hauv teb, microprocessor manufacturers nrhiav lwm txoj kev los txhim kho kev ua haujlwm kom lawv muaj peev xwm tuav lub zog ntawm txhua qhov kev hloov tshiab.


Ib tug ntxhais multi-core processor yog ib nti xwb uas muaj ntau dua ib tus tub ntxhais ntawm tus lej microprocessor. Txhua tus tub ntxhais yuav tuaj yeem ua raws li cov lus qhia ntawm kev ua haujlwm hauv kev ua haujlwm. Qhov no ua rau ntau tus neeg ua haujlwm ntawm tus cwj pwm ua haujlwm los ntawm cov xov tooj ntawm cov cores, yog lub software tsim los ua kom zoo dua ntau tshaj ib tus tub ntxhais ua haujlwm. Qee yam khoom, xws li kev caij npav thiab cache, tej zaum yuav raug faib tawm ntawm lub cores. Vim tias cov cores muaj cev nqaij daim tawv sib npaug, lawv tuaj yeem sib txuas lus nrog lwm tus ceev nrooj dua li tus kheej (off-chip) processors nyob rau hauv ntau qhov kev sib txuas lus, uas ua rau kev txhim kho tag nrho kev ua haujlwm.


Nyob rau hauv 2001, IBM tau qhia thawj cov lag luam ntau tus ntxhais processor, tus monolithic two-core POWER4. Tus kheej cov computers tsis tau txais ntau hom kev lag luam txog rau xyoo 2005, ntawm ob-ntxhais Intel Pentium D. Txawm li cas los xij, Pentium D, tsis yog lub tshuab ua haujlwm multi-core processor. Nws tau tsim los ntawm ob qhov kev tuag, txhua tus uas muaj ib tug tub ntxhais, ntim rau ib tus ntiv tes sib tsoo. Thawj monolithic multi-core processor nyob rau hauv tus kheej lub computer lag luam yog AMD Athlon X2, uas tau pib ob peb lub lis piam tom qab Pentium D. Raws li ntawm 2012, dual-quad-core processors yog dav siv hauv tsev PCs thiab laptops, thaum lub sij hawm quad-, six-, eight-, ten-, twelve, and sixth-core processors nyob hauv cov kev lag luam thiab cov lag luam kev lag luam nrog cov chaw ua haujlwm thiab cov chaw haujlwm.


Sun Microsystems tau tso tawm Niagara thiab Niagara 2 chips, ob qho tib si ntawm qhov chaw uas muaj yim-ntxhais tsim. Lub Niagara 2 txhawb ntau threads thiab koomtxoos ntawm 1.6 GHz.


Siab Intel Xeon processors uas muaj nyob rau ntawm LGA 775, LGA 1366, thiab LGA 2011 thiab high-end AMD Opteron processors uas nyob rau C32 thiab G34 nyob yog DP (dual processor) peev xwm, nrog rau cov Intel Core 2 Qeme QX9775 kuj siv nyob rau hauv cov laus Mac Pro los ntawm Kua thiab Intel Skulltrail niam ntawv. AMD's G34 motherboards yuav txhawb nqa txog plaub CPUs thiab Intel's LGA 1567 motherboards yuav txhawb nqa txog yim CPUs.


Niaj hnub nimno desktop computers txhawb cov tshuab nrog ntau CPUs, tab sis ob peb daim ntawv sau npe sab nraud ntawm txoj kev ua lag luam muaj peev xwm ua zoo siv ntau tshaj plaub lub cores. Intel thiab AMD tam sim no muab ceev quad, hex thiab octa-core desktop CPUs, ua multi-CPU systems obsolete rau ntau lub hom phiaj. Lub lag luam ua lag luam nyob hauv kev hloov ntawm cov tub ntxhais quad plaub CPU vim Intel tus tub ntxhais 2 Quad raug tso tawm thiab yog tam sim no ntau, tab sis dual-core CPUs tseem muaj ntau dua. Cov laus los sis cov tshuab computer txawb tsis tshua muaj ntau tshaj ob lub cores dua tshiab dua cov khoom lag luam tshiab. Tsis yog txhua tus software optimized rau cov tub ntxhais kawm CPUs, ua tsawg dua, cov cores tseem ceeb dua.


AMD muaj CPUs nrog ntau lub cores rau ib tus nqi ntawm cov nyiaj them tshaj tus nqi CPUs uas zoo sib xws-tab sis cov AMD cores yog me ntsis qeeb qeeb, yog li ob lub lag luam tawm hauv ntau daim ntawv thov nyob ntawm seb daim ntawv zoo li cas kaw cov kev khiav haujlwm. Piv txwv li, Intel pheej yig tshaj plaws Sandy Choj quad-core CPUs feem ntau them yuav luag ob zaug li AMD tus pheej yig tshaj Athlon II, Phenom II, thiab FX quad-core CPUs, tiam sis Intel muaj dual-core CPUs nyob rau tib nqe ranges li AMD tus pheej yig plaub quad-ntxhais CPUs. Nyob rau hauv ib daim ntawv thov uas siv ib lossis ob lub xov, Intel dual-core CPUs outperform AMD tus nqi quad-core CPUs-thiab yog ib qho kev txhawb nqa peb los plaub qhov pheej yig AMD quad-core CPUs outperform tus nqi zoo nkaus li Intel Intel dual-core CPUs .


Keeb kwm, AMD thiab Intel tau hloov chaw ua haujlwm nrog lub tuam txhab CPU ntau zaus. Intel tam sim no ua rau sab sab ntawm lub computer CPU ua lag luam, nrog lawv Sandy Choj thiab Ivy Choj Series. Hauv cov servers, AMD tus Tshiab Opterons zoo li muaj kev ua tau zoo rau lawv cov nqi taw tes. Qhov no txhais tau hais tias AMD yog tam sim no muaj kev sib txig sib luag hauv cov tsawg-mus rau nruab nrab ntawm cov servers thiab cov chaw ua haujlwm uas siv ntau dua cov cores thiab threads.


Tawm mus rau huab, qhov kev sib xws no kuj muaj xws li ntau lub qauv tsim, nrog pua pua cores, nrog kev sib txawv ntawm architectures.