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Multi-processor processor

Mar 14, 2019

Ib tus ntxhais multi-core processor yog ib qho kev sib txuas nrog ob los yog ntau dua kev ua haujlwm ywj pheej hu ua "cores", uas nyeem thiab ua raws li cov lus qhia. Cov txheej txheem yog CPU cov lus qhia ua dog dig (xws li ntxiv, txav cov ntaub ntawv, thiab ceg), tiam sis tus kws sau ua haujlwm yuav khiav tau ntau cov lus qhia ntawm cais cov cores nyob rau tib lub sij hawm, nce zuag qhia tag nrho cov kev pab cuam rau cov kev pab cuam uas tsis pom zoo sib luag. Cov kws ua lag luam feem ntau sib txuas cov cores mus rau ib qho kev sib tsuam (Integrated Circuits) (paub tias yog tus chip multiprocessor los yog CMP) los mus rau ntau yam nyob hauv ib lub pob ntiv tes. Cov microprocessors tam sim no siv nyob rau hauv yuav luag txhua tus kheej computers yog cov tub ntxhais.


Ib tug tub ntxhais zov processor siv zus ua ke rau hauv ib lub cev muaj zog nkaus xwb. Cov neeg tsim khoom siv tau ob peb lub cores rau hauv cov tub ntxhais siv ntau yam khoom siv nruj nreem los yog tsis xoob. Piv txwv, cov qhab nia ua tau los yog tsis pub koom nrog caches, thiab lawv siv tau cov lus sib txuas los yog sib koom ua ke hauv kev sib txuas lus. Cov khaub nquag network sib txuas rau interconnect cores xws li tsheb npav, ntiv nplhaib, ob lub qhov cub, thiab crossbar. Homogeneous multi-core systems muaj xws li cov cores tib yam nkaus xwb; heterogeneous multi-core systems muaj cores uas tsis zoo tib yam (piv txwv li loj.LITTLE muaj heterogeneous cores uas qhia tib cov ntawv qhia, thaum AMD Accelerated Processing Units muaj cores uas tsis txawm qhia cov kev qhia tib yam). Xws li nrog ib leeg-processor systems, cores hauv cov tub ntxhais kawm tshuab tej zaum yuav siv architectures xws li VLIW, superscalar, vector, los yog multithreading.


Cov tub ntxhais siv ntau hom kev lag luam yog siv thoob plaws ntau daim ntawv sau npe, nrog rau kev siv hom phiaj, kos npe, network, cov teeb meem ntawm cov duab (DSP), thiab graphics (GPU).


Kev txhim kho nyob rau hauv kev kawm tau zoo los ntawm kev siv ntawm ib tug tub ntxhais zov processor nyob ntawm ntau ntau ntawm cov software algorithms siv thiab lawv cov kev siv. Hauv particular, tau nquag muaj kev txwv los ntawm cov feem ntawm software uas muaj peev xwm khiav hauv tib lub sijhawm ntawm ntau lub cores; qhov no tshwm sim yog piav los ntawm Amdahl txoj cai. Hauv qhov zoo tshaj plaws, qhov teeb meem zoo sib xws ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov teeb meem ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov cores, los yog ntau tshaj yog tias qhov teeb meem yog qhov sib faib kom txaus rau hauv txhua tus cache (s), tsis txhob siv qeeb qeeb qeeb tseem ceeb . Feem ntau cov ntawv thov, tab sis, tsis yog ceev npaum li qhov tshwj tsis yog cov neeg tsim kev kawm tau nqis peev ntau ntawm kev siv zog rov tshawb nrhiav qhov teeb meem tag nrho. Lub parallelization ntawm software yog ib qho tseem ceeb rau lub npe ntawm kev tshawb fawb.