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Organic teeb-emitting diode (OLED)

Apr 25, 2017

OLED


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Tsab OLED teeb pom kev zoo panels


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Ua qauv qhia ntawm ib tug saj zawg zog OLED ntaus ntawv


Ib tug organic teeb-emitting diode (OLED) yog ib lub teeb-emitting diode (LED) nyob rau hauv uas lub emissive electroluminescent txheej yog ib zaj duab xis ntawm cov organic compound uas emits teeb nyob rau hauv cov lus teb rau ib tug hluav taws xob tam sim no. Qhov no txheej ntawm organic semiconductor yog situated ntawm ob electrodes; feem ntau, yam tsawg kawg ib tug ntawm cov electrodes yog pob tshab. OLEDs yog siv los tsim cov qhia nyob rau hauv pab kiag li lawm xws li TV ntxaij vab tshaus, computer saib, portable tshuab xws li cov xov tooj txawb, handheld kev ua si consoles thiab PDAs. Ib tug loj cheeb tsam ntawm kev tshawb fawb yog txoj kev loj hlob ntawm cov dawb OLED pab kiag li lawm rau siv nyob rau hauv cov khoom-xeev teeb pom kev zoo daim ntaub ntawv.


Muaj ob lub ntsiab cov tsev neeg ntawm OLED: cov neeg raws li nyob rau hauv me me molecules thiab cov neeg ua hauj lwm polymers. Ntxiv mobile ions rau ib tug OLED tsim ib lub teeb-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) uas muaj ib tug me ntsis txawv hom kev lag luam. Ib OLED zaub yuav tsum tau tsav nrog ib tug passive-matrix (PMOLED) los yog active-matrix (AMOLED) tswj tswvyim. Nyob rau hauv lub PMOLED tswvyim, txhua leej (thiab kab) nyob rau hauv cov zaub yog tshuaj sequentially, ib tug los ntawm ib tug, whereas AMOLED tswj siv ib tug nyias-zaj duab xis transistor backplane mus ncaj qha mus saib thiab hloov txhua tus neeg pixel los yog tua, uas rau siab daws teeb meem thiab loj zaub ntau thiab tsawg pab.


Ib OLED zaub ua hauj lwm tsis muaj ib tug backlight; yog li, nws yuav tso saib sib sib zog nqus dub ntau ntau thiab yuav ua tau thinner thiab lighter tshaj ib tug kua siv lead ua zaub (LCD). Nyob rau hauv tsawg lub teeb tej yam kev mob ambient (xws li ib chav tsev tsaus), ib tug OLED kev tshuaj ntsuam yuav ua tau ib tug ntau dua zoo piv tshaj li ib LCD, tsis hais seb tus LCD siv txias cathode fluorescent teeb los yog ib tug LED backlight.



Keeb kwm

André Bernanose thiab co-neeg ua hauj lwm nyob rau Nancy-Université nyob rau hauv Fabkis ua tus thawj tswvyim ntawm electroluminescence nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv organic nyob rau hauv thaum ntxov 1950s. Lawv thov siab alternating voltages nyob rau hauv huab cua rau ntaub ntawv xws li acridine txiv kab ntxwv, tog twg los tso rau los yog yaj nyob rau hauv cellulose los yog cellophane nyias films. Qhov kev thov mechanism yog yog direct excitation ntawm cov xim molecules los yog excitation ntawm electrons.


Nyob rau hauv 1960 Martin Pope thiab ib co ntawm nws co-neeg ua hauj lwm nyob New York University tsim ohmic tsaus-txhaj electrode hu rau organic muaju. Lawv tau piav ntxiv qhov tsim nyog nquag yuav tsum (ua hauj lwm zog) rau lub qhov thiab electron txhaj electrode hu. Cov hu yog lub hauv paus xwb txhaj nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov niaj hnub OLED pab kiag li lawm. Pope s pab pawg neeg kuj thawj cai ncaj tam sim no (DC) electroluminescence nyob rau hauv lub tshuab nqus tsev rau ib tug hluas ntshiab crystal ntawm anthracene thiab nyob rau anthracene muaju doped nrog tetracene nyob rau hauv 1963 siv ib tug me me rau thaj tsam nyiaj electrode ntawm 400 volts. Qhov kev thov mechanism yog teb-ceev electron excitation ntawm molecular fluorescence.


Pope tus pab qhia nyob rau hauv xyoo 1965 uas nyob rau hauv lub qhaj ntawv ntawm ib tug sab nraud fais teb, lub electroluminescence nyob rau hauv anthracene muaju yog tshwm sim los ntawm lub recombination ntawm ib tug thermalized electron thiab qhov, thiab hais tias lub kev theem ntawm anthracene yog siab dua nyob rau hauv lub zog tshaj qhov exciton zog. Tsis tas li ntawd nyob rau hauv 1965, W. Helfrich thiab WG Schneider ntawm lub teb chaws kev tshawb fawb Council nyob rau hauv Canada ua ob txhaj recombination electroluminescence rau thawj lub sij hawm nyob rau hauv ib tug anthracene ib siv lead ua siv qhov thiab electron txhaj electrodes, lub forerunner ntawm cov niaj hnub muab ob npaug rau-txhaj kiag li lawm. Nyob rau hauv tib lub xyoo, Dow Tshuaj soj ntsuam patented ib txoj kev npaj electroluminescent hlwb siv high-voltage (500-1500 V) AC-tsav (100-3000 Hz) electrically insulated ib millimeter nyias khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg ntawm ib tug yaj phosphor muaj av anthracene hmoov, tetracene, thiab graphite powder.Their npaj mechanism muab kev koom tes tshuab hluav taws xob excitation ntawm cov neeg ntawm lub graphite hais thiab lub anthracene molecules.


Roger Partridge ua tus thawj soj ntawm electroluminescence los ntawm polymer films ntawm lub National Physical Kuaj nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United Kingdom. Tus ntaus ntawv muaj ib tug zaj duab xis ntawm poly (N-vinylcarbazole) mus txog 2.2 micrometers tuab nyob nruab nrab ntawm ob tug xwb txhaj electrodes. Cov kev tshwm sim ntawm peb tes num tau patented nyob rau hauv 1975 [16] thiab luam tawm nyob rau hauv 1983.


Tus thawj cov tswv yim OLEDs

Hong Kong-yug American cev chemist Ching W. Tang thiab nws co-neeg ua hauj lwm Steven Van Slyke ntawm Eastman Kodak ua tus thawj tswv yim OLED ntaus ntawv nyob rau hauv 1987. Qhov no yog ib kiv puag ncig rau cov technology. Qhov no ntaus ntawv siv ib tug tshiab ob-txheej qauv nrog cov cais qhov thauj thiab electron thauj khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg xws li hais tias recombination thiab lub teeb emission tshwm sim nyob rau hauv nruab nrab ntawm lub organic txheej; no ua nyob rau hauv ib tug txo nyob rau hauv kev khiav hauj lwm voltage thiab kev txhim kho nyob rau hauv efficiency.


Kev tshawb fawb rau hauv polymer electroluminescence culminated nyob rau hauv 1990 nrog JH Burroughes li al. nyob rau Cavendish Kuaj nyob rau hauv Cambridge qhia ib tug high efficiency teeb ntsuab-emitting polymer raws li ntaus ntawv siv 100 nm tuab films ntawm poly (p-phenylene vinylene).


Universal zaub Corporation tuas feem ntau ntawm patents txog lub commercialization ntawm OLEDs.


Ua hauj lwm hauv paus ntsiab lus


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Schematic ntawm ib tug bilayer OLED: 1. cathode (-), 2. Emissive Txheej, 3. Emission ntawm hluav taws xob, 4. conductive Txheej, 5. anode (+)


Ib tug raug OLED yog muaj li ntawm ib tug txheej ntawm cov ntaub ntawv organic situated ntawm ob electrodes, lub anode thiab cathode, tag nrho cov tso rau ib tug substrate. Cov organic molecules yog electrically conductive raws li ib tug tshwm sim ntawm delocalization ntawm pi electrons tshwm sim los ntawm conjugation tshaj ib feem los yog tag nrho ntawm cov qauv. Cov ntaub ntawv muaj conductivity theem xws li los ntawm insulators rau conductors, thiab yog li ntawd pom tias organic semiconductors. Qhov siab tshaj plaws nyob thiab qis tshaj unoccupied molecular orbitals (homo thiab LUMO) ntawm cov organic semiconductors yog analogous mus rau lub valence thiab conduction bands ntawm inorganic semiconductors.


Keeb xeeb, cov yooj yim tshaj plaws polymer OLEDs muaj ib zaug xwb organic txheej. Ib tug piv txwv yog thawj lub teeb-emitting ntaus ntawv tsim los ntawm JH Burroughes li al., Uas muab kev koom tes ib txheej ntawm poly (p-phenylene vinylene). Txawm li cas los multilayer OLEDs yuav kev qhia nrog ob los yog ntau tshaj khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav txhim kho ntaus ntawv efficiency. Raws li zoo raws li conductive zog, ntaub ntawv sib txawv tej zaum yuav raug xaiv los pab them nqi txhaj tshuaj ntawm electrodes los ntawm kev muab ib tug ntau gradual hluav taws xob profile, los yog thaiv ib tug xwb los ntawm ncav qhov opposite electrode thiab raug lub sij hawm. Muaj ntau niaj hnub OLEDs teeb ib tug yooj yim bilayer qauv, muaj raws ntawm ib tug conductive txheej thiab ib tug emissive txheej. Ntau tsis ntev los no uas nyob rau hauv OLED architecture pab quantum efficiency (mus txog 19%) los ntawm kev siv ib tug qhab-nees heterojunction. Nyob rau hauv lub graded heterojunction architecture, nyob tus yeees ntawm lub qhov thiab electron-thauj cov ntaub ntawv mas nws txawv tsis tu ncua nyob rau hauv lub emissive txheej nrog ib tug dopant emitter. Cov qhab-nees heterojunction architecture combines cov kev pab cuam ntawm ob pa architectures los ntawm kev txhim kho xwb txhaj thaum ib txhij ntsuas them nyiaj thauj nyob rau hauv lub emissive cheeb tsam.


Thaum lub sij hawm kev lag luam, ib tug voltage yog thov thoob plaws lub OLED xws li hais tias tus anode yog zoo nrog hwm rau cathode. Anodes yog khaws raws li qhov zoo tshaj ntawm lawv kho qhov muag transparency, hluav taws xob conductivity, thiab tshuaj stability. Ib tug tam sim no ntawm electrons ntws los ntawm lub ntaus ntawv los ntawm cathode rau anode, raws li electrons yog txhaj rau hauv lub LUMO ntawm cov organic txheej ntawm lub cathode thiab rho los ntawm cov homo nyob rau anode. Qhov no tom kawg txheej txheem tej zaum kuj yuav piav raws li cov kev txhaj tshuaj ntawm electron qhov mus rau hauv lub homo. Electrostatic rog coj cov electrons thiab lub qhov ntawm txhua lwm yam thiab lawv recombine sib sau ib exciton, ib tug ua txhua yam lub xeev ntawm cov electron thiab qhov. Qhov no tshwm sim los ze zog mus rau lub emissive txheej, vim hais tias nyob rau hauv cov organic semiconductors qhov yog feem ntau mobile tshaj electrons. Lub lwj ntawm no pog xeev tau nyob rau hauv ib tug so ntawm lub zog theem ntawm lub electron, nrog los ntawm emission ntawm hluav taws xob uas nws zaus yog nyob rau hauv qhov pom cheeb tsam. Tus zaus ntawm no tawg nyob rau hauv lub band kis ntawm cov khoom, nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv no qhov txawv nyob rau hauv lub zog ntawm lub homo thiab LUMO.


Raws li electrons thiab qhov yog fermions nrog ib nrab integer kiv, muaj ib tug exciton yuav yog tau nyob rau hauv ib tug singlet lub xeev los yog ib tug triplet lub xeev nyob rau yuav ua li cas lub spins ntawm lub electron thiab qhov tau ua ke. Cov lus peb triplet excitons yuav tsim rau txhua singlet exciton. Decay los ntawm triplet lub xeev (phosphorescence) yog tig txwv tsis pub, nce lub timescale ntawm txoj kev hloov thiab limiting tus nrog efficiency ntawm fluorescent kiag li lawm. Phosphorescent organic teeb-emitting diodes kom siv spin-orbit kev sib tshuam mus pab txhawb intersystem hla ntawm singlet thiab triplet lub xeev, yog li muab emission los ntawm ob singlet thiab triplet lub xeev thiab kev txhim kho lub internal efficiency.


Indium tin oxide (Ito) yog feem ntau siv raws li tus anode khoom. Nws yog pob tshab rau pom lub teeb thiab muaj ib tug high ua hauj lwm muaj nuj nqi uas txhawb nqa kev txhaj tshuaj ntawm qhov mus rau hauv lub homo theem ntawm cov organic txheej. Ib tug raug conductive txheej tej zaum yuav muaj xws li PEDOT: PSS li cov homo theem ntawm cov khoom no feem ntau yog lus dag ntawm lub chaw ua hauj lwm muaj nuj nqi ntawm ito thiab lub homo ntawm lwm yam uas feem ntau siv polymers, txo lub zog tej kev qhov kev txhaj tshuaj. Co xws li barium thiab calcium yog feem ntau siv rau cov cathode raws li lawv muaj tsawg ua hauj lwm zog uas txhawb txhaj tshuaj ntawm electrons mus rau hauv lub LUMO ntawm cov organic txheej. Tej co yog reactive, li ntawd, lawv yuav tsum tau ib tug Capping txheej ntawm txhuas kom tsis txhob degradation.


Seb kev tshawb fawb tau qhov tseeb hais tias lub zog ntawm cov anode, rau anode / qhov thauj txheej (HTL) interface topography plays ib tug luag hauj lwm loj nyob rau hauv lub efficiency, kev kawm ntawv, thiab lub neej ntawm cov organic teeb emitting diodes. Tsis zoo tag nrho nyob rau hauv qhov chaw ntawm lub anode txo anode-organic zaj duab xis interface adhesion, ua rau kom hluav taws xob tsis kam, thiab pub rau ntau heev tsim ntawm uas tsis yog-emissive tsaus me ntsis nyob rau hauv lub OLED cov ntaub ntawv uas adversely cuam tshuam rau lub neej. Mechanisms kom txo tau anode roughness rau Ito / iav substrates muaj xws li cov kev siv ntawm nyias films thiab nws tus kheej-dho monolayers. Tsis tas li ntawd, lwm substrates thiab anode ntaub ntawv raug pom tau hais tias kom OLED kev kawm thiab lub neej. Tau piv txwv muaj xws li ib siv lead ua sapphire substrates kho nrog kub (Au) zaj duab xis anodes yielding qis ua hauj lwm zog, kev khiav hauj lwm voltages, hluav taws xob kuj tseem ceeb, thiab ua lub neej ntawm OLEDs.


Tib cov cab kuj pab kiag li lawm yog feem ntau siv rau kawm kinetics thiab them nyiaj thauj mechanisms ntawm ib tug organic khoom thiab yuav ua tau pab tau thaum sim mus kawm lub zog hloov lwm lub tsev muaj dab. Raws li tam sim no los ntawm lub ntaus ntawv yog li ntawm xwb ib hom xwb cov cab kuj, tog twg los electrons los yog qhov, recombination tsis tshwm sim thiab tsis muaj teeb yog tawm txim liab. Piv txwv li, electron xwb li yuav muab tau los ntawm hloov Ito nrog ib tug tsawg dua ua hauj lwm muaj nuj nqi hlau uas tsub kom lub zog barrier ntawm qhov kev txhaj tshuaj. Ib yam li ntawd, qhov tsuas pab kiag li lawm yuav tau ua los ntawm kev siv ib tug cathode ua thiaj tau tuaj ntawm txhuas, uas ua rau ib tug muaj zog teeb meem loj heev rau npaum electron kev txhaj tshuaj.


Carrier tshuav nyiaj li cas

Balanced xwb txhaj tshuaj thiab hloov lwm lub tsev yuav tsum mus yuav tau cov sab hauv efficiency, ntshiab emission ntawm luminance txheej tsis muaj kab mob emission ntawm them nyiaj thauj khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg, thiab siab stability. Ib tug ntau txoj kev uas yuav sib npaug xwb yog optimizing lub thickness ntawm tus nqi uas thauj cov khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg, tiam sis yog ib qho nyuaj rau tswj. Lwm txoj kev yog siv cov exciplex. Exciplex tsim ntawm qhov-thauj (p-hom) thiab electron-thauj (n-hom) sab chains rau localize electron-qhov officers. Zog yog ces pauv mus rau luminophore thiab muab high efficiency. Ib qho piv txwv ntawm kev siv exciplex yog grafting Oxadiazole thiab carbazole sab units nyob rau hauv liab diketopyrrolopyrrole-doped Copolymer ntsiab saw qhia tau hais tias zoo sab nraud quantum efficiency thiab xim purity nyob rau hauv tsis muaj qhov zoo OLED.


khoom technologies

Me molecules


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Alq3, kheev siv nyob rau hauv me me molecule OLEDs

Npaum OLEDs siv me me molecules twb xub tsim los ntawm Dr. Ching W. Tang thiab al. ntawm Eastman Kodak. Lub sij hawm OLED feeb hais txog hais rau no hom ntawm ntaus ntawv, tab sis yog lub sij hawm SM-OLED yog tseem nyob rau hauv kev siv.


Molecules kheev siv nyob rau hauv OLEDs xws li organometallic chelates (piv txwv li Alq3, siv nyob rau hauv cov organic teeb-emitting ntaus ntawv qhia los ntawm Tang thiab al.), Fluorescent thiab phosphorescent dyes thiab conjugated dendrimers. Ib tug xov tooj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv yog siv rau lawv xwb thauj khoom, piv txwv li triphenylamine thiab derivatives kheev siv raws li cov ntaub ntawv rau qhov thauj khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg. Fluorescent dyes yuav tau xaiv kom tau lub teeb emission txawv wavelengths, thiab cov tebchaw xws li perylene, rubrene thiab quinacridone derivatives yog feem ntau siv. Alq3 twb tau muab siv raws li ib tug ntsuab emitter, electron thauj khoom thiab raws li ib tug tswv tsev rau daj thiab liab emitting dyes.


Zus tau tej cov me me molecule pab kiag li lawm thiab qhia feem ntau yog yuav thermal evaporation nyob rau hauv ib lub tshuab nqus. Qhov no ua rau ntau tus lawm txheej txheem kim kim thiab cov kev txwv kev siv rau cov loj-cheeb tsam pab kiag li lawm, dua li lwm yam ua caag. Txawm li cas los, tsis tooj mus rau polymer-raws li pab kiag li lawm, lub tshuab nqus tsev deposition txheej txheem enables cov tsim ntawm zoo tshuaj, homogeneous films, thiab kev tsim kho ntawm heev multi-txheej lug. Qhov no siab yooj nyob rau hauv txheej tsim, muag txog cai rau cov them nyiaj thauj thiab them nyiaj thaiv cov hlab khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg yuav tsum tau tsim, yog lub ntsiab yog vim li cas rau lub siab tshem ntawm cov me me molecule OLEDs.


Coherent emission los ntawm ib tug laser zas-doped tandem SM-OLED ntaus ntawv, zoo siab heev nyob rau hauv lub pulsed regime, tau demonstrated.The emission yog ze li ntawm diffraction tas nrog ib tug spectral dav zoo ib yam li hais tias ntawm broadband zas lasers.


Soj ntsuam daim ntawv qhia txog luminescence los ntawm ib tug polymer molecule, sawv cev rau tsawg tshaj plaws tau organic teeb-emitting diode (OLED) ntaus ntawv. Zaum yuav tsum tau optimize yam yuav ua ntau haib teeb emissions. Thaum kawg, qhov no ua hauj lwm yog ib tug thawj kauj ruam ntawm kev ua molecule-sized Cheebtsam uas muab hluav taws xob thiab kho qhov muag zog. Zoo li cov Cheebtsam yuav ua lub hauv paus ntawm ib tug molecular computer.

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Polymer teeb-emitting diodes


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poly (p-phenylene vinylene), siv nyob rau hauv thawj PLED


Polymer teeb-emitting diodes (PLED), kuj teeb-emitting polymers (LEP), koom nrog ib tug electroluminescent conductive polymer uas emits lub teeb thaum kev cob cog rua rau ib tug sab nraud voltage. Lawv yog siv raws li ib tug nyias zaj duab xis rau tag nrho cov-spectrum xim qhia. Polymer OLEDs yog heev npaum thiab yuav tsum tau ib tus me me ntawm lub hwj chim rau tus nqi ntawm lub teeb ua.


Nqus deposition tsis yog ib tug tsim txoj kev rau txoj kev ua nyias films ntawm polymers. Txawm li cas los, polymers yuav tiav nyob rau hauv cov tshuaj, thiab tig txheej yog ib qho qauv ntawm depositing nyias polymer films. Qhov no txoj kev yog ntau suited rau txoj kev loj-cheeb tsam films tshaj thermal evaporation. Tsis nqus yog yuav tsum tau, thiab cov emissive ntaub ntawv kuj yuav thov nyob rau hauv substrate los ntawm ib tug txheej txheem los ntawm coj mus muag inkjet printing. Txawm li cas los, raws li hauv daim ntawv thov ntawm tom ntej khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg nyhav yaj cov neeg twb tam sim no, tsim ntawm multilayer lug yog ib qhov nyuaj nrog rau cov kev. Cov hlau cathode tej zaum tseem yuav tsum tau tso los ntawm thermal evaporation nyob rau hauv lub tshuab nqus tsev. Ib lwm txoj kev los nqus deposition yog tso ib tug Langmuir-Blodgett zaj duab xis.


Raug polymers siv nyob rau hauv thov qhia muaj xws li derivatives ntawm poly (p-phenylene vinylene) thiab polyfluorene. Muab los ntawm sab chains mus rau lub polymer qaum tej zaum yuav txiav txim seb cov xim ntawm tawm txim liab teeb los yog cov stability thiab solubility ntawm lub polymer rau kev kawm ntawv thiab yooj yim ntawm processing.While unsubstituted poly (p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) yog feem ntau insoluble, ib tug xov tooj ntawm PPVs thiab lwm yam poly (naphthalene vinylene) s (PNVs) uas yog soluble nyob rau hauv cov organic solvents los yog dej tau raug npaj ntawm lub nplhaib qhib metathesis polymerization. Cov dej-soluble polymers los yog conjugated poly electrolytes (CPEs) kuj yuav siv tau raws li qhov kev txhaj tshuaj khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg ib leeg los yog nyob rau hauv ua ke nrog nrog nanoparticles li graphene.


phosphorescent ntaub ntawv


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Ir (mppy) 3, ib tug phosphorescent dopant uas emits lub teeb ntsuab.


Phosphorescent organic teeb emitting diodes siv cov hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm electrophosphorescence los hloov hluav taws xob lub zog nyob rau hauv ib tug OLED rau hauv lub teeb nyob rau hauv ib tug heev npaum yam, nrog rau cov hauv quantum tshem ntawm xws li nce 100%.


Feem ntau, ib tug polymer xws li poly (N-vinylcarbazole) yog siv raws li ib tug tswv tsev cov ntaub ntawv uas uas ib tug organometallic complex yog ntxiv raws li ib tug dopant. Iridium ceg xws li Ir (mppy) 3 yog tam sim no rau kev tsom xam ntawm kev tshawb fawb, txawm hais tias ceg raws li nyob rau hauv tej yam hnyav hlau xws li platinum tau kuj tau siv.


Tus heavy hlau atom qhov chaw ntawm no complexes exhibits muaj zog spin-orbit coupling, yooj yim intersystem hla ntawm singlet thiab triplet lub xeev. Los ntawm kev siv cov phosphorescent cov ntaub ntawv, ob qho tib si singlet thiab triplet excitons yuav tsum tau lwj radiatively, li no kev txhim kho sab hauv quantum efficiency ntawm tus dais piv rau ib tug qauv pleaded qhov twg tsuas yog tus singlet lub xeev yuav ua rau kom emission ntawm lub teeb.


Daim ntaub ntawv ntawm OLEDs nyob rau hauv khoom hauv lub xeev teeb pom kev zoo yuav tsum tau kev kawm tau ntawm siab brightness nrog zoo CIE coordinates (rau dawb emission). Kev siv cov macromolecular hom zoo li polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) nyob rau hauv uas siv cov phosphorescent hom xws li Ir rau luam OLEDs tau tshaaj brightnesses raws li high school raws li 10,000 cd / m2.


Ntaus architectures

qauv

Qab los yog sab saum toj emission

Qab los yog sab saum toj hluav taws xob yog hais txog tsis tau orientation ntawm lub OLED zaub, tab sis mus rau cov kev taw qhia uas tawm txim liab teeb nyob rau hauv lub ntaus ntawv. OLED pab kiag li lawm yog dej num raws li hauv qab emission pab kiag li lawm yog tias lub teeb tawm txim liab kis tau los ntawm cov pob tshab los yog semi-pob tshab hauv qab electrode thiab substrate nyob rau hauv uas lub vaj huam sib luag twb manufactured. Sab saum toj emission pab kiag li lawm yog txwv kom muab zais raws li seb los yog tsis cov teeb tawm txim liab los ntawm lub OLED ntaus ntawv nyob ntawm lub hau uas yog ntxiv nram qab no fabrication ntawm tus dais. Top-emitting OLEDs yog zoo suited rau cov nquag-matrix daim ntaub ntawv raws li lawv muaj peev xwm yuav yooj yim dua kev nrog ib tug uas tsis yog-pob tshab transistor backplane. Lub TFT array txuas mus rau hauv qab substrate nyob rau hauv uas AMOLEDs yog manufactured yog feem ntau uas tsis yog-pob tshab, uas ua nyob rau hauv loj txhaws ntawm kis lub teeb yog hais tias tus ntaus ntawv raws li ib tug hauv qab emitting tswvyim.

pob tshab OLEDs

Pob tshab OLEDs siv pob tshab los yog semi-pob tshab hu rau ob tog ntawm lub ntaus ntawv mus rau tsim qhia hais tias yuav ua kom tau ob qho tib si sab saum toj thiab hauv qab emitting (pob tshab). TOLEDs yuav heev kom zoo, ua rau nws yooj yim npaum li mus saib qhia nyob kaj lug tshav ntuj. Qhov no technology yuav siv tau nyob rau hauv lub taub hau-up qhia, ntse qhov rais los yog augmented kev muaj tiag daim ntaub ntawv.

muab qhab-nees heterojunction

Muab qhab-nees heterojunction OLEDs maj txo tus piv ntawm electron qhov rau electron thauj tshuaj. Qhov no los tau nyob rau hauv yuav luag ob npaug rau quantum efficiency ntawm uas twb muaj lawm OLEDs.

Teem OLEDs

Teem OLEDs siv ib tug pixel architecture uas sib tsub sib nias lub xim liab, ntsuab, thiab xiav subpixels rau sab saum toj ntawm ib leeg es tsis txhob tom ntej no mus rau ib lwm, ua rau ntau yam pauv loj nce nyob rau hauv gamut thiab xim tob, thiab zoo heev txo pixel kis. Tam sim no, lwm yam zaub technologies muaj RGB (thiab RGBW) pixels mapped tom ntej no mus rau txhua lwm yam zuj zus lawm tej zaum kev daws teeb meem.

inverted OLED

Nyob rau hauv sib piv rau ib tug pa OLED, nyob rau hauv uas lub anode yog muab tso rau hauv substrate, ib tus inverted lub OLED siv ib tug hauv qab cathode uas yuav tsum tau txuas mus rau lub ntws thaum xaus ntawm ib tug n-channel TFT tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau cov uas tsis muaj nqi amorphous silicon TFT backplane pab tau nyob rau hauv lub raug AMOLED qhia.

patterning technologies

Patternable organic teeb-emitting pab kiag li lawm siv ib lub teeb los yog thaum tshav kub kub tshuab txais electroactive txheej. Ib tug latent khoom (PEDOT-TMA) yog muaj nyob rau hauv no txheej uas, raws li qhov ua kom, yuav heev npaum li ib lub qhov txhaj tshuaj txheej. Siv tus txheej txheem no, lub teeb-emitting pab kiag li lawm nrog arbitrary qauv npaj.


Xim patterning yuav tsum accomplished los ntawm txoj kev laser, xws li tawg hob sublimation hloov lwm lub tsev (RIST).


Organic vapor dav hlau luam ntawv (OVJP) siv ib tug inert cov cab kuj roj, xws li argon los yog nitrogen, mus thauj evaporated organic molecules (raws li nyob rau hauv cov organic vapor theem deposition). Cov pa roj yog raug ntiab tawm los ntawm ib tug micrometre-sized nozzle los yog nozzle array nyob ze rau qhov substrate raws li nws yog txhais. Qhov no pub rau luam arbitrary multilayer qauv tsis muaj kev siv cov kuab tshuaj.


Pa OLED qhia yog tsim los ntawm cov pa thermal evaporation (VTE) thiab yog patterned los ntawm tus duab ntxoov ntxoo-daim npog qhov ncauj. Ib tug txhua yam daim npog qhov ncauj muaj keeb tas cov pa kom dhau xwb nyob rau lub yam qhov chaw.


Zoo li number case dav hlau cov ntaub ntawv uas depositioning, inkjet etching (IJE) deposits leej ntawm kuab mus rau ib tug substrate tsim los xyua yaj substrate khoom thiab ntxias ib tug qauv los yog txawv. Inkjet etching ntawm polymer khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg nyob rau hauv OLED tus yuav siv tau los ua rau kom lub zuag qhia tag nrho tawm-coupling efficiency. Nyob rau hauv OLEDs, lub teeb tsim los ntawm cov emissive khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg ntawm cov OLED yog cov kis tau tawm ntawm lub ntaus ntawv thiab cov cuab hauv lub ntaus ntawv los ntawm tag nrho cov sab hauv thiaj (tir). Qhov no trapped teeb yog yoj-ua raws sab hauv ntawm lub ntaus ntawv mus txog rau thaum nws nce mus txog ib tug ntug uas nws yog dissipated los ntawm haum los yog emission. Inkjet etching yuav siv tau los xyua hloov lub polymeric khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg ntawm OLED lug kom txo tau zuag qhia tag nrho tir thiab ua rau kom tawm-coupling efficiency ntawm lub OLED. Piv rau ib tug uas tsis yog-etched polymer txheej, qhov kev polymer txheej nyob rau hauv lub OLED qauv ntawm lub IJE txheej txheem yuav pab kom txo tau cov tir ntawm lub OLED ntaus ntawv. IJE kuab tshuaj yog feem ntau organic es tsis txhob dej raws li vim lawv tsis yog-acidic xwm thiab muaj peev xwm mus zoo yaj ntaub ntawv ntawm kub nyob rau hauv lub kub taw tes ntawm cov dej.


Backplane technologies

Rau lub siab daws teeb meem zaub zoo li ib tug TV, ib tug TFT backplane yog tsim nyog los tsav lub pixels kom raug. Tam sim no, tsis muaj kub polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) - nyias-zaj duab xis transistor (TFT) yog siv rau coj mus muag AMOLED qhia. LTPS-TFT muaj variation ntawm qhov kev kawm nyob rau hauv ib tug zaub, yog li ntau yam nyiaj circuits tau qhia. Vim rau qhov loj txwv ntawm lub excimer laser siv rau LTPS, lub AMOLED loj yog tsawg. Yuav kom tiv nrog tej yam nyuab hais txog lub vaj huam sib luag loj, amorphous-silicon / microcrystalline-silicon backplanes tau qhia nrog loj zaub tsab demonstrations.


Fabrication

Hloov-printing yog ib qho txuj technology los mus sib sau ua ke coob ntawm thaum uas tig mus OLED thiab AMOLED pab kiag li lawm nraaj. Nws yuav siv sij hawm kom zoo dua ntawm tus qauv hlau deposition, photolithography, thiab etching los tsim kawm tuab si lug tias feem ntau nyob rau hauv lub khob los yog lwm yam ntaus ntawv substrates. Nyias polymer nplaum khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg yog siv lug txhim khu kuj mus hais thiab nto tsis xws luag. Microscale ICS yog hloov lwm lub tsev-luam mus rau lub nplaum nto thiab ces ci siab kho nplaum khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg. Ib qho ntxiv photosensitive polymer txheej yog thov mus rau lub substrate rau dab tsi rau cov topography tshwm sim los ntawm cov ntawv luam ics, reintroducing ib tug ca saum npoo. Photolithography thiab etching tuskheej ib co polymer khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg mus hle conductive pawm no ntau npau rau hauv lub ICS. Afterwards, lub anode txheej yog thov mus rau lub ntaus ntawv backplane tsim hauv qab electrode. OLED khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg yog thov mus rau anode txheej nrog cov pa vapor deposition, thiab them nrog ib tug conductive hlau electrode txheej. Raws li ntawm 2011 hloov lwm lub tsev-printing yog muaj peev xwm los sau mus rau lub hom phiaj substrates mus 500mm X 400mm. Qhov no loj txwv xav tau kev pab los nthuav rau hloov lwm lub tsev-printing los ua ib qho txheej txheem rau cov fabrication ntawm loj OLED / AMOLED qhia.


Zoo


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Ua qauv qhia ntawm ib tug 4.1 "tsab saj zawg zog zaub los ntawm Sony


Lower nqi nyob rau hauv lub neej yav tom ntej

OLEDs luam tau mus rau tej haum substrate los ntawm ib tug inkjet tshuab luam ntawv los yog txawm los ntawm kev tshuaj ntsuam luam ntawv, raws ua rau lawv pheej yig dua yuav tsim dua LCD los yog ntshav qhia. Txawm li cas los, fabrication ntawm lub OLED substrate yog tam sim no kim tshaj hais tias ntawm ib TFT LCD, kom txog rau thaum loj lawm txoj kev txo nqi los ntawm scalability. Roll-rau-yob vapor-deposition txoj kev rau organic pab kiag li lawm ua cia loj ntau lawm txhiab tus pab kiag li lawm ib feeb rau qhov chaw cia them nqi; Txawm li cas los, cov txheej txheem no kuj induces cov teeb meem: pab kiag li lawm uas muaj ntau hom khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg yuav tsis yooj yim los mus ua kom vim hais tias ntawm kev cuv npe-meem hauv li qhov sib txawv luam khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg rau qhov yuav tsum tau degree ntawm cov neeg.

Hnav thiab saj zawg zog yas substrates

OLED lus yuav kev qhia rau saj zawg zog yas substrates, ua rau lub tau fabrication ntawm saj zawg zog organic teeb-emitting diodes rau lwm cov ntawv tshiab, xws li yob-up qhia kos nyob rau hauv fabrics los yog cov khaub ncaws. Yog hais tias ib tug substrate li polyethylene terephthalate (TUS TSIAJ) yuav siv tau, cov lus tej zaum yuav ua inexpensively. Tsis tas li ntawd, yas substrates yog shatter-resistant, tsis zoo li cov iav qhia siv nyob rau hauv LCD pab kiag li lawm.

Daim duab zoo zoo

OLEDs pab kom ib tug ntau dua zoo piv thiab wider saib lub piv rau LCDs, vim hais tias OLED pixels emit teeb ncaj qha. Tsis tas li ntawd, OLED pixel xim tshwm sim muaj tseeb thiab unshifted, txawm li lub saib lub txuas 90 ° los ntawm lub cev.

Zoo hwj chim efficiency thiab thickness

LCDs lim lub teeb tawm txim liab los ntawm ib tug backlight, uas ib tug me me feem ntawm lub teeb los ntawm. Yog li, lawv yuav tsis qhia tseeb dub. Txawm li cas los, ib qho kev tsaug zog OLED caij tsis tsim teeb los yog haus hwj chim, uas muaj tseeb blacks.Removing lub backlight kuj ua rau OLEDs lighter vim hais tias ib co substrates yog tsis xav tau. Thaum nrhiav nyob rau saum toj-emitting OLEDs, thickness kuj plays ib tug luag hauj lwm thaum tham txog index match khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg (IMLs). Emission siv yog kho kom zoo thaum lub IML thickness yog 1.3-2.5 nm. Lub refractive nqi thiab cov txuam ntawm tus kho qhov muag IMLs vaj tse, xws li tus ntaus ntawv qauv tsis, tseem txhim khu lub emission siv nyob rau hauv cov thicknesses.

Lo lus teb lub sij hawm

OLEDs kuj muaj ib tug sai npaum li cas cov lus teb lub sij hawm tshaj ib tug LCD. Siv teb lub sij hawm nyiaj technologies, tus ceev tshaj niaj hnub LCDs yuav ncav cuag teb lub sij hawm raws li tsawg li 1 ms rau lawv ceev tshaj plaws xim kev hloov mus, thiab muaj peev xwm ntawm refresh frequencies raws li high school raws li 240 Hz. Raws li LG, OLED teb lub sij hawm yog mus txog 1,000 lub sij hawm sai tshaj li LCD, muab conservative kev kwv yees ntawm nyob rau hauv 10 μs (0.01 ms), uas yuav theoretically haum refresh frequencies nce 100 kHz (100,000 Hz). Vim lawv tsis tshua muaj neeg ceev ceev teb lub sij hawm, OLED lus kuj muab tau yooj yim tsim los strobed, tsim ib cov nyhuv zoo xws li cov CRT flicker nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim kom tsis txhob muaj tus qauv-thiab-tuav tus cwj pwm pom nyob rau ob qho tib si LCDs thiab ib co OLED lus, uas tsim lub xaav ntawm cov lus tsa suab plooj.


tsis zoo


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LEP (lub teeb emitting polymer) zaub uas qhia ib nrab tsis ua hauj lwm



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Ib tug laus OLED zaub qhia coj


lifespan

Qhov loj tshaj kev teeb meem rau OLEDs yog lub tsawg lub neej ntawm cov organic cov ntaub ntawv. Ib tug 2008 kev qhia rau ib tug OLED TV vaj huam sib luag pom hais tias "Tom qab 1,000 teev cov kob xiav luminance degraded los ntawm 12%, cov liab los ntawm 7% thiab cov ntsuab los ntawm 8%." Nyob rau hauv kev, xiav OLEDs dabneeg tau muaj ib tug lub neej ntawm ib ncig ntawm 14,000 teev mus rau ib nrab thawj brightness (tsib xyoo nyob rau hauv 8 teev ib hnub twg) thaum siv rau tiaj-vaj huam sib luag lus. Qhov no yog qis tshaj cov raug lub neej ntawm LCD, LED los yog PDP technology. Txhua tam sim no yog nyob rau txog 25,000-40,000 teev mus rau ib nrab brightness, nyob ntawm seb chaw tsim tshuaj paus thiab qauv. Degradation tshwm sim vim hais tias ntawm tsub zuj zuj ntawm nonradiative recombination chaw zov me nyuam thiab luminescence quenchers nyob rau hauv lub emissive tsam. Nws yog hais tias cov tshuaj neej puas nyob rau hauv lub semiconductors tshwm sim nyob rau hauv plaub kauj ruam: 1) recombination xwb muaj los ntawm lub haum ntawm UV teeb, 2) homolytic dissociation, 3) tom ntej radical tas li ntawd tshua uas tsim π radicals, thiab 4) disproportionation ntawm ob radicals ua rau hydrogen-atom hloov lwm lub tsev tshua. Txawm li cas los, ib co manufacturers 'qhia tsom ua rau kom cov lifespan ntawm OLED lus, thawb lawv tsim lub neej yav tag los uas ntawm LCD qhia los ntawm kev txhim kho teeb outcoupling, yog li tsis tau raws li tib lub brightness nyob ib sab tsav current.In 2007, sim OLEDs tau tsim uas yuav txhawb 400 cd / m2 ntawm luminance rau ntau tshaj 198.000 teev rau ntsuab OLEDs thiab 62.000 teev rau xiav OLEDs.


Xim tshuav nyiaj li cas

Tsis tas li ntawd, raws li cov OLED cov ntaub ntawv uas siv los tsim xiav lub teeb degrades ho ceev tshaj cov ntaub ntawv uas tsim lwm yam xim, xiav lub teeb tso zis yuav txo txheeb ze mus rau lwm yam xim ntawm lub teeb. Qhov no variation nyob rau hauv lub differential xim cov zis yuav hloov cov xim nqi koj tshuav ntawm cov zaub thiab ntau npaum li cas hnov dua ib tug txo nyob rau hauv tag nrho luminance. Qhov no yuav tsum tau zam cov los kho xim tshuav nyiaj li cas, tab sis qhov no yuav tsum tau tshaj tswj circuits thiab sis raug zoo nrog cov neeg siv, uas yog tsis tsim nyog rau cov neeg siv. Feem ntau, tab sis yog, manufacturers optimize qhov luaj li cas ntawm cov R, G thiab B subpixels los txo tam sim no ceev los ntawm lub subpixel nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim rau equalize lub neej nyob puv luminance. Piv txwv li, ib tug xiav subpixel tej zaum yuav 100% loj tshaj lub ntsuab subpixel. Cov liab subpixel tej zaum yuav 10% me dua cov ntsuab.


Efficiency ntawm xiav OLEDs

Kev txhim kho rau cov efficiency thiab lub neej ntawm cov kob xiav OLEDs yog tseem ceeb heev rau txoj kev vam meej ntawm OLEDs li replacements rau LCD technology. Txiav txim siab kev tshawb fawb tau nyiaj ua lag luam nyob rau hauv kev tsim xiav OLEDs muaj lwm quantum efficiency li zoo li ib tug tob xiav xim. Sab nraud quantum efficiency qhov tseem ceeb ntawm 20% thiab 19% tau qhia rau liab (625 nm) thiab ntsuab (530 nm) diodes, ntsig txog. Txawm li cas los, xiav diodes (430 nm) tsuas tau tau mus cuag lub siab tshaj plaws lwm quantum tshem nyob rau hauv lub chav 4% mus rau 6%.


Dej puas tsuaj

Dej yuav instantly puas organic ntaub ntawv ntawm cov lus. Yog li ntawd, zoo sealing dab yog ib qho tseem ceeb rau cov tswv yim los tsim khoom. Dej puas tsuaj tshwj xeeb tshaj yog tej zaum yuav txwv tsis pub cov thiav ntawm ntau saj zawg zog qhia.


Sab nraum zoov kev ua tau zoo

Raws li ib tug emissive zaub technology, OLEDs cia siab kiag li raws li qhov hloov hluav taws xob mus rau lub teeb, tsis zoo li cov LCDs uas yog rau ib co raws li paab. e-ntawv ua rau yus tus txoj kev nyob rau hauv efficiency nrog ~ 33% ambient lub teeb reflectivity, enabling cov zaub yuav tsum tau siv tsis muaj internal teeb qhov chaw. Lub nws yog xim hlau cathode nyob rau hauv ib tug OLED ua raws li ib daim iav, nrog reflectance nce 80%, ua rau cov neeg pluag readability nyob kaj lug ambient lub teeb xws li nraum zoov. Txawm li cas los, nrog daim ntawv thov kom muaj ib tug yeej polarizer thiab antireflective coatings, lub diffuse reflectance yuav txo tau kom tsawg tshaj li 0.1%. Nrog 10,000 FC teeb meem illumination (raug kuaj mob rau simulating sab nraum zoov illumination), uas yields ib approximate photopic zoo ntawm 5: 1. Tsis ntev los no kev kho nyob rau hauv OLED technologies, txawm li cas los, pab kom OLEDs ua tau zoo dua LCDs nyob kaj lug tshav ntuj. The Super AMOLED display in the Galaxy S5, for example, was found to outperform all LCD displays on the market in terms of brightness and reflectance.


Fais fab kev noj

While an OLED will consume around 40% of the power of an LCD displaying an image that is primarily black, for the majority of images it will consume 60–80% of the power of an LCD. However, an OLED can use more than three times as much power to display an image with a white background, such as a document or web site. This can lead to reduced battery life in mobile devices, when white backgrounds are used.


Manufacturers and commercial uses


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Magnified image of the AMOLED screen on the Google Nexus One smartphone using the RGBG system of the PenTile Matrix Family.


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A 3.8 cm (1.5 in) OLED display from a Creative ZEN V media player


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OLED lighting in a shopping mall in Aachen, Germany


OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as displays for mobile phones and portable digital media players, car radios and digital cameras among others. Such portable applications favor the high light output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight and their low power drain. Portable displays are also used intermittently, so the lower lifespan of organic displays is less of an issue. Prototypes have been made of flexible and rollable displays which use OLEDs' unique characteristics. Applications in flexible signs and lighting are also being developed. Philips Lighting have made OLED lighting samples under the brand name "Lumiblade" available online and Novaled AG based in Dresden, Germany, introduced a line of OLED desk lamps called "Victory" in September, 2011.


OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung color cell phones, as well as some HTC, LG and Sony Ericsson models. Nokia has also introduced some OLED products including the N85 and the N86 8MP, both of which feature an AMOLED display. OLED technology can also be found in digital media players such as the Creative ZEN V, the iriver clix, the Zune HD and the Sony Walkman X Series.


The Google and HTC Nexus One smartphone includes an AMOLED screen, as does HTC's own Desire and Legend phones. However, due to supply shortages of the Samsung-produced displays, certain HTC models will use Sony's SLCD displays in the future, while the Google and Samsung Nexus S smartphone will use "Super Clear LCD" instead in some countries.


OLED displays were used in watches made by Fossil (JR-9465) and Diesel (DZ-7086).


Other manufacturers of OLED panels include Anwell Technologies Limited (Hong Kong), AU Optronics (Taiwan), Chimei Innolux Corporation (Taiwan), LG (Korea),and others.


In 2009, Shearwater Research introduced the Predator as the first color OLED diving computer available with a user replaceable battery.


DuPont stated in a press release in May 2010 that they can produce a 50-inch OLED TV in two minutes with a new printing technology. If this can be scaled up in terms of manufacturing, then the total cost of OLED TVs would be greatly reduced. DuPont also states that OLED TVs made with this less expensive technology can last up to 15 years if left on for a normal eight-hour day.


The use of OLEDs may be subject to patents held by Universal Display Corporation, Eastman Kodak, DuPont, General Electric, Royal Philips Electronics, numerous universities and others. There are by now thousands of patents associated with OLEDs, both from larger corporations and smaller technology companies.


RIM, the maker of BlackBerry smartphones, uses OLED displays in their BlackBerry 10 devices.


Flexible OLED displays are already being produced and these are used by manufacturers to create curved displays such as the Galaxy S7 Edge but so far there they are not in devices that can be flexed by the consumer. Apart from the screen itself the circuit boards and batteries would need to be flexible.Samsung demonstrated a roll-out display in 2016.


Fashion

Textiles incorporating OLEDs are an innovation in the fashion world and pose for a way to integrate lighting to bring inert objects to a whole new level of fashion. The hope is to combine the comfort and low cost properties of textile with the OLEDs properties of illumination and low energy consumption. Although this scenario of illuminated clothing is highly plausible, challenges are still a road block. Some issues include: the lifetime of the OLED, rigidness of flexible foil substrates, and the lack of research in making more fabric like photonic textiles.


Samsung applications

By 2004 Samsung, South Korea's largest conglomerate, was the world's largest OLED manufacturer, producing 40% of the OLED displays made in the world, and as of 2010 has a 98% share of the global AMOLED market. The company is leading the world of OLED industry, generating $100.2 million out of the total $475 million revenues in the global OLED market in 2006. As of 2006, it held more than 600 American patents and more than 2800 international patents, making it the largest owner of AMOLED technology patents.


Samsung SDI announced in 2005 the world's largest OLED TV at the time, at 21 inches (53 cm). This OLED featured the highest resolution at the time, of 6.22 million pixels. In addition, the company adopted active matrix based technology for its low power consumption and high-resolution qualities. This was exceeded in January 2008, when Samsung showcased the world's largest and thinnest OLED TV at the time, at 31 inches (78 cm) and 4.3 mm.


In May 2008, Samsung unveiled an ultra-thin 12.1 inch (30 cm) laptop OLED display concept, with a 1,280×768 resolution with infinite contrast ratio. According to Woo Jong Lee, Vice President of the Mobile Display Marketing Team at Samsung SDI, the company expected OLED displays to be used in notebook PCs as soon as 2010.


In October 2008, Samsung showcased the world's thinnest OLED display, also the first to be "flappable" and bendable. It measures just 0.05 mm (thinner than paper), yet a Samsung staff member said that it is "technically possible to make the panel thinner". To achieve this thickness, Samsung etched an OLED panel that uses a normal glass substrate. The drive circuit was formed by low-temperature polysilicon TFTs. Also, low-molecular organic EL materials were employed. The pixel count of the display is 480 × 272. The contrast ratio is 100,000:1, and the luminance is 200 cd/m2. The colour reproduction range is 100% of the NTSC standard.


In the same month, Samsung unveiled what was then the world's largest OLED Television at 40-inch with a Full HD resolution of 1920 × 1080 pixels. In the FPD International, Samsung stated that its 40-inch OLED Panel is the largest size currently possible. The panel has a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1, a colour gamut of 107% NTSC, and a luminance of 200 cd/m2 (peak luminance of 600 cd/m2).


At the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in January 2010, Samsung demonstrated a laptop computer with a large, transparent OLED display featuring up to 40% transparency and an animated OLED display in a photo ID card.


Samsung's latest AMOLED smartphones use their Super AMOLED trademark, with the Samsung Wave S8500 and Samsung i9000 Galaxy S being launched in June 2010. In January 2011 Samsung announced their Super AMOLED Plus displays, which offer several advances over the older Super AMOLED displays: real stripe matrix (50% more sub pixels), thinner form factor, brighter image and an 18% reduction in energy consumption.


At CES 2012, Samsung introduced the first 55" TV screen that uses Super OLED technology.


On January 8, 2013, at CES Samsung unveiled a unique curved 4K Ultra S9 OLED television, which they state provides an "IMAX-like experience" for viewers.


On August 13, 2013, Samsung announced availability of a 55-inch curved OLED TV (model KN55S9C) in the US at a price point of $8999.99.


On September 6, 2013, Samsung launched its 55-inch curved OLED TV (model KE55S9C) in the United Kingdom with John Lewis.


Samsung introduced the Galaxy Round smartphone in the Korean market in October 2013. The device features a 1080p screen, measuring 5.7 inches (14 cm), that curves on the vertical axis in a rounded case. The corporation has promoted the following advantages: A new feature called "Round Interaction" that allows users to look at information by tilting the handset on a flat surface with the screen off, and the feel of one continuous transition when the user switches between home screens.


Sony applications


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Sony XEL-1, the world's first OLED TV. (front)


The Sony CLIÉ PEG-VZ90 was released in 2004, being the first PDA to feature an OLED screen. Other Sony products to feature OLED screens include the MZ-RH1 portable minidisc recorder, released in 2006 and the Walkman X Series.


At the 2007 Las Vegas Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Sony showcased 11-inch (28 cm, resolution 960×540) and 27-inch (68.5 cm), full HD resolution at 1920 × 1080 OLED TV models. Both claimed 1,000,000:1 contrast ratios and total thicknesses (including bezels) of 5 mm. In April 2007, Sony announced it would manufacture 1000 11-inch (28 cm) OLED TVs per month for market testing purposes. On October 1, 2007, Sony announced that the 11-inch (28 cm) model, now called the XEL-1, would be released commercially; the XEL-1 was first released in Japan in December 2007.


In May 2007, Sony publicly unveiled a video of a 2.5-inch flexible OLED screen which is only 0.3 millimeters thick. At the Display 2008 exhibition, Sony demonstrated a 0.2 mm thick 3.5 inch (9 cm) display with a resolution of 320×200 pixels and a 0.3 mm thick 11 inch (28 cm) display with 960×540 pixels resolution, one-tenth the thickness of the XEL-1.


In July 2008, a Japanese government body said it would fund a joint project of leading firms, which is to develop a key technology to produce large, energy-saving organic displays. The project involves one laboratory and 10 companies including Sony Corp. NEDO said the project was aimed at developing a core technology to mass-produce 40 inch or larger OLED displays in the late 2010s.


In October 2008, Sony published results of research it carried out with the Max Planck Institute over the possibility of mass-market bending displays, which could replace rigid LCDs and plasma screens. Eventually, bendable, see-through displays could be stacked to produce 3D images with much greater contrast ratios and viewing angles than existing products.


Sony exhibited a 24.5" (62 cm) prototype OLED 3D television during the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2010.


In January 2011, Sony announced the PlayStation Vita handheld game console (the successor to the PSP) will feature a 5-inch OLED screen.


On February 17, 2011, Sony announced its 25" (63.5 cm) OLED Professional Reference Monitor aimed at the Cinema and high end Drama Post Production market.


On June 25, 2012, Sony and Panasonic announced a joint venture for creating low cost mass production OLED televisions by 2013.


LG applications

As of 2010, LG Electronics produced one model of OLED television, the 15 inch 15EL9500 and had announced a 31" (78 cm) OLED 3D television for March 2011. On December 26, 2011, LG officially announced the "world's largest 55" OLED panel" and featured it at CES 2012. In late 2012, LG announces the launch of the 55EM9600 OLED television in Australia.


In January 2015, LG Display signed a long term agreement with Universal Display Corporation for the supply of OLED materials and the right to use their patented OLED emitters.


Mitsubishi applications

Lumiotec is the first company in the world developing and selling, since January 2011, mass-produced OLED lighting panels with such brightness and long lifetime. Lumiotec is a joint venture of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, ROHM, Toppan Printing, and Mitsui & Co. On June 1, 2011, Mitsubishi installed a 6-meter OLED 'sphere' in Tokyo's Science Museum.


Recom Group/video name tag applications

On January 6, 2011, Los Angeles based technology company Recom Group introduced the first small screen consumer application of the OLED at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. This was a 2.8" (7 cm) OLED display being used as a wearable video name tag. At the Consumer Electronics Show in 2012, Recom Group introduced the world's first video mic flag incorporating three 2.8" (7 cm) OLED displays on a standard broadcaster's mic flag. The video mic flag allowed video content and advertising to be shown on a broadcasters standard mic flag.


BMW

BMW plans to use OLEDs in tail lights and interior lights in their future cars; however, OLEDs are currently too dim to be used for brake lights, headlights and indicators.