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Silicon Graphics Tshuab

Silicon Graphics Tshuab

Mar 14, 2019

Motorola 680x0-based systems

SGI thawj lub cim khoom, pib nrog IRIS (Integrated Raster Imaging System) 1000 tauj ntawm high-performance graphics terminals, tau raws li lub Motorola 68000 tsev neeg ntawm microprocessors. Tom qab IRIS 2000 thiab 3000 qauv tau tsim los ua tiav UNIX workstations.


IRIS 1000 series

Thawj zaug nkag hauv 1000 tauj (qauv 1000 thiab 1200, pib ua tiav xyoo 1984) muaj cov duab qis, ib qho ntawm qhov txuas nrog rau lub tshuab computer xws li Digital Digital Corporation Corporation VAX, los muab cov duab muaj peev xwm. Lawv siv 8 MHz Motorola 68000 CPUs nrog 768 kB ntawm RAM thiab tsis muaj disk drives. Lawv tau ua haujlwm dhau lub network (ntawm daim Excelan EXOS / 101 Ethernet card) los ntawm lawv lub computer. Lawv tau siv "PM1" CPU pawg thawj coj, uas yog ib qho txawv ntawm pawg thawj coj uas tau siv hauv Stanford University's SUN cov chaw ua haujlwm thiab tom qab Sun-1 chaw haujlwm ntawm Sun Microsystems. Cov txheej txheem graphics tau tsim los ntawm GF1 cov duab ntas, UC3 "Hloov Mloog", DC3 "Display Muas", thiab BP2 bitplane. Lub 1000 tauj cav tov raug tsim los ntawm cov txheej txheem Multibus.


Tom qab 1000 series cov cav tov, lub 1400 thiab 1500, tau khiav ntawm 10 MHz thiab tau 1.5 MB ntawm RAM. Tus 1400 muaj 73 MB ST-506 disk tsav, thaum lub 1500 muaj 474 MB SMD raws li tsav nrog Xylogics 450 disk tswj. Lawv tau siv lub PM2 CPU thiab PM2M1 RAM lub rooj tsavxwm txij xyoo 2000. Cov kev ntsuas li ib txwm rau 1000 tauj khiav ntawm 30 Hz interlaced. Muaj 6 beta-xeem rau ntawm 1400 lub chaw ua haujlwm tau tsim, thiab thawj lub tsev (SGI's first commercial computer) raug xa mus rau Carnegie-Mellon University Digital Imaging Laboratory hauv xyoo 1984.


IRIS 2000 thiab 3000 series


Geometry Chip Cav los ntawm ib qho IRIS 3120

SGI tau tsim nws cov cav tov rau hauv cov chaw ua haujlwm nrog ob txoj kab khoom txuas - IRIS 2000 series, thawj zaug tso tawm thaum Lub Yim Hli 1985. SGI pib siv UNIX System V operating system. Muaj tsib lub qauv ntawm ob qhov khoom, qhov 2000/2200/2300/2400/2500 ntau yam siv 68010 CPUs (lub PM2 CPU module), thiab tom qab "Turbo" systems, lub 2300T, 2400T thiab 2500T, uas muaj 68020 ( IP2 CPU module). Tag nrho cov siv Excelan EXOS / 201 Ethernet card, tib yam cuab yeej hardware (GF2 Tsav Tsis, UC4 Hloov Los Txhawm, DC4 Cov Tuav Tswj, BP3 Bitplane). Lawv lub ntsiab tseem ceeb yog CPU, RAM, thiab Weitek Floating Point Accelerator boards, disk controllers thiab disk drives (ob leeg ST-506 thiab SMD tau muaj). Cov no yuav hloov siab dua, piv txwv li ntawm 2400 mus rau 2400T. Tus 2500 thiab 2500T muaj cov chassis loj, tus qauv 6 "19" EIA khawm nrog qhov chaw nyob hauv qab rau ob sab SMD disk ntsuas ntawm kwv yees li 68 kg txhua tus Cov Non-Turbo qauv siv lub Multibus rau CPU los txuas lus nrog lub qhov taw tes Tsav tsheb, thaum Turbos ntxiv ib lub xov tooj cua rau qhov no. 60 Hz cov saib xyuas tau siv rau xyoo 2000.


Qhov siab ntawm cov cav tov uas siv Motorola CPUs tau ntsib nrog rau IRIS 3000 series (qauv 3010/3020/3030 thiab 3110/3115/3120/3130, lub 30s ob qho tib si). Lawv siv tib lub duab thooj sab nruab nrab thiab Ethernet raws li qhov 2000s, tab sis kuj tseem siv tau txog 12 "geometry xyaw", thawj qhov kev siv cov graphical hardware accelerators. Tus txheej txheem soj ntsuam yog 19 "60 Hz uas tsis yog interlaced nrog ib lub qaij / txav sab hauv; 19" 30 Hz interlaced thiab 15 "60 Hz tsis-interlaced (nrog qaij / qia mus los) kuj muaj.


IRIS 3130 thiab nws cov nus muag me me tau ua rau lub sijhawm, ua tiav UNIX workstations. Lub 3130 yog lub zog txaus los txhawb lub 3D animation tag thiab rendering pob tsis muaj mainframe yug. Nrog lub peev xwm loj zog los ntawm cov qauv ntawm lub hnub (ob 300 MB drives), streaming suab paj nruag thiab Ethernet, nws yuav yog qhov chaw nruab nrab ntawm ib qho kev ua lag luam animation.


Cov kab ntawd tau txiav txim siab thaum lub Kaum Ib Hlis Ntuj xyoo 1989, nrog rau 3500 lub nruab xa tawm ntawm 2000 thiab 3000 qauv ua ke.


RISC era

Nrog kev qhia ntawm IRIS 4D series, SGI hloov mus rau MIPS microprocessors. Cov cav tov no tau muaj hwj chim ntau thiab tuaj nrog lub peev xwm ntawm lub rooj sib zog floating-point muaj rab peev xwm. Raws li 3D graphics ua ntau nrov hauv TV thiab zaj duab xis thaum lub sij hawm no, cov txheej txheem no yog lub luag haujlwm los tsim kom muaj ntau ntawm SGI lub koob npe nrov.


SGI tsim muaj ntau yam ntawm cov haujlwm ua haujlwm hauv MIPS thiab cov neeg ua haujlwm thaum lub sijhawm xyoo 1990, khiav SGI's version of UNIX System V, tam sim no hu ua IRIX. Cov no muaj cov loj hauv Onyx visualization systems, qhov loj ntawm cov tub yees thiab cov peev xwm txhawb nqa txog 64 processors thaum tswj txog peb lub kwj siab ntawm kev daws teeb meem, kev pom tseeb 3D graphics.


Nyob rau lub Kaum Hlis Nruab xyoo 1991, MIPS tshaj tawm thawj lub lag luam muaj 64-ntsis microprocessor, R4000. SGI siv lub R4000 hauv nws txoj haujlwm Crimson. IRIX 6.2 yog thawj zaug 64-ntsis IRIX tawm, nrog 64-ntsis pointers.


Txhawb kom muaj cov khoom ntawm yav tom ntej ntawm MIPS microprocessors (64-ntsis R4000), SGI nrhiav tau lub tuam txhab rau xyoo 1992 rau $ 333 lab thiab muab npe rau nws li MIPS Technologies Inc., ib lub tuam txhab muaj feem cuam ntawm SGI.


Nyob rau xyoo 1993, Silicon Graphics (SGI) tau kos npe rau ib daim ntawv cog lus nrog Nintendo los tsim cov CPU siv hauv lub Nintendo 64, tus derivative ntawm R4300i microprocessor. Txawm hais tias txoj haujlwm tau kos npe thaum xyoo 1993 los, nws tsis yog pej xeem kom txog thaum Lub Yim Hli xyoo ntawd, thiab lub console nws tus kheej tsis tso tawm kom txog rau thaum 1996.


Hauv xyoo 1998, SGI tau tshem tawm ib txhia tswv cuab ntawm MIPS Technologies, Inc hauv Re-IPO, thiab tag nrho nws tus kheej nyob hauv 2000.


Lub sijhawm xyoo 1990, thaum ntau qhov kev lag luam tau xav tias Itanium los hloov ob qho tib si CISC thiab RISC architectures nyob rau hauv cov computers tsis yog-embedded, SGI tau tshaj tawm lawv lub hom phiaj ua kom tsis txhob MIPS hauv lawv lub. Kev txhim kho ntawm MIPS microprocessors tshiab lawm, thiab tus qauv R12000 uas twb muaj lawm raug ncua ntau lub sijhawm txog 2003 los muab cov neeg muaj khoom siv ntau lub sijhawm ntxiv mus rau Itanium.


Nyob rau lub Yim Hli 2006, SGI tshaj tawm qhov xaus ntawm cov khoom siv rau MIPS / IRIX systems, thiab thaum xyoo xaus MIPS / IRIX cov khoom tsis muaj feem ntau ntawm SGI.


IRIS GL thiab OpenGL

Txij li ob tiam neeg Onyx Reality Engine cav tov, SGI tau siv nws txoj kev kawm siab 3D graphics subsystems los ntawm tus qauv API hu ua IRIS Graphics Language (IRIS GL). Raws li ntau nta tau ntxiv lub xyoo, IRIS GL tau dhau los ua kom muaj zog thiab muaj cumbersome siv dua. Nyob rau xyoo 1992, SGI txiav txim siab los ntxuav thiab hloov IRIS GL thiab ua rau cov lus qhib OpenGL API tau los ntawm SGI cov neeg sib tw, thiab teeb tsa kev lag luam thoob plaws kev lag luam kom muaj lub OpenGL txuj (OpenGL Architecture Saib Xyuas Rooj Tsav Xwm ).


Qhov no txhais tau hais tias thawj zaug, yoojyim, yauv, kev pabcuam los ntawm cov kev sib tham ntawm cov ntoo. Los txog rau hnub no, OpenGL tseem yog lub sij hawm tsuas yog siv cov qauv 3D graphics nkaus xwb los ua ntau yam ntawm cov kev khiav haujlwm. OpenGL-ES txawm sau rau ntau hom xovtooj ntawm tes. Nws lub ntsiab competitor (Direct3D ntawm Microsoft) sau nkaus xwb ntawm Microsoft lub Windows-based cov cav tov thiab qee cov consoles.


ACE Consortium


SGI yog ib feem ntawm qhov pib hauv kev lag luam puag ncig, pib thaum ntxov 1990s nrog 20 lwm cov tuam txhab, xws li Compaq, Digital Equipment Corporation, MIPS Computer Systems, Group Bull, Siemens, NEC, NeTpower, Microsoft thiab Santa Cruz Operation. Nws lub hom phiaj yog ua kom paub cov haujlwm ua haujlwm raws li MIPS architecture thiab muaj peev xwm khiav qhov rais NT thiab SCO UNIX. Cov pab pawg tau tsim cov kev qhia tshwj xeeb RISC Computing (ARC), tab sis pib tsis muaj zog ntau dua li ib xyoos tom qab nws ua tiav.


Kev lomzem kev lag luam

Ib qho SGI Crimson system nrog fsn daim duab uas muaj peb daim duab navigator nyob hauv xyoo 1993 movie Jurassic Park.


Hauv movie Twister, cov neeg tuaj yeem pom tau siv lub SGI laptop computer; Txawm li cas los xij, lub chav tsev qhia tsis yog qhov tseeb ua haujlwm computer, tab sis theej ib lub laptop plhaub los ua ib ncig SGI Corona LCD tiaj screen.


Lub xyoo 1995 zaj duab xis Congo kuj ua rau lub SGI laptop computer siv los ntawm Dr. Ross (Laura Linney) sib txuas lus ntawm satellite rau TraviCom HQ.


Cov xim liab, lowercased "sgi" logo tuaj yeem pom thaum pib ntawm cov qhab nia qhib ntawm HBO series Silicon Valley, ua ntej yuav coj thiab hloov los ntawm Google logo ua cov duab nrag ntawm intro. Google xauj cov qub SGI cov vaj tse hauv 2003 rau lawv lub hauv paus chaw hauv Mountain View, CA kom txog thaum lawv tau txais cov tsev kawm ntawv tshuam nyob rau hauv 2006.


Tau yim xyoo sib law liag (1995-2002), tag nrho cov yeeb yaj duab uas tau muab nom tswv rau lub Academy Award rau Cov Tub Ntxhais Kawm Ntawv Zoo Tshaj Lawm tau tsim los ntawm Silicon Graphics computer systems.


Thaum pheej yig PCs pib muaj kev kawm zoo nyob ze rau cov tuam txhab lag luam tshwj xeeb uas yog SGI lub lag luam tseem ceeb, SGI txav nws lub hom phiaj rau kev ua haujlwm siab rau cov yeeb yaj duab thiab cov Web site. Muaj ntau tus SGI graphics engineers khiav hauj lwm ntawm lwm lub computer graphics tuam txhab lag luam xws li ATI thiab Nvidia, nrog rau lub kiv puag ncig ntawm PC 3D.


Xyoo 1995 zaj duab xis Qho Khoom Qho Khoom Ua Si Siv siv Silicon Graphics 'Indigo2 computers los tsim kev ua yeeb yam rau tus yeeb yam.


Dawb software

SGI yog tus txhawb nqa dawb software, txhawb ntau qhov kev lag luam xws li Linux thiab Samba, thiab qhib qee yam ntawm nws tus kheej ua ntej cov khoom cai xws li XFS filesystem thiab Open64 compiler.


Nrhiav Txais Alias, Wavefront, Cray thiab Intergraph

Nyob rau xyoo 1995, SGI yuav Alias Research, Kroyer Films, thiab Wavefront Technologies hauv kev sib yeem tag nrho kwv yees li $ 500 lab thiab sib koom ua lag luam rau Alias | Wavefront. Nyob rau Lub Rau Hli Ntuj 2004 SGI tau muag cov lag luam, tom qab npe hu ua Alias / Wavefront, mus rau tus kheej equity peev firm Accel-KKR rau $ 57.1 lab. Lub Kaum Hlis 2005, Autodesk tau tshaj tawm tias nws tau kos npe rau ib daim ntawv cog lus tseem ceeb kom tau txais Alias rau $ 182 lab nyiaj.


Thaum lub Ob Hlis Ntuj 1996, SGI yuav tau siv lub chaw lag luam uas paub zoo tias Cray Research rau $ 740 lab, thiab pib siv cov npe xws li "CrayLink" rau (SGI-tsim) cov cuab yeej siv rau hauv SGI cov neeg ua haujlwm. Peb lub hlis tom qab, nws muag Cray lub Lag Luam Systems Division, lub luag hauj lwm rau CS6400 SPARC / Solaris neeg rau zaub mov, Sun Microsystems rau ib qho tsis suav nrog (lees paub tom qab ntawm lub hnub executive ua "significantly tsawg dua $ 100 lab"). Muaj ntau ntawm Cray T3E engineers tsim thiab tsim lub SGI Altix thiab NUMAlink technology. SGI muag Cray hom thiab khoom kab rau Tera Computer Company rau Lub Peb Hlis 31, 2000 rau $ 35 lab plus ib vam Shares. SGI tseem tau faib nws cov nyiaj paj tshua hauv MIPS Technologies los ntawm kev sib tw ua haujlwm thaum lub Yim Hli 20, 2000.


Hauv lub Cuaj Hli 2000, SGI nrhiav tau Zx10 series ntawm qhov chaw ua hauj lwm ntawm Windows thiab cov chaw nruab nrab ntawm Intergraph Computer Systems (rau ib qho kev ntseeg $ 100 lab). Cov qauv no tau ua raws li SGI systems, tab sis sis txiav hauv Lub Rau Hli 2001.


SGI Visual Workstations

Lwm lub sijhawm los ntawm SGI nyob rau xyoo 1990 los qhia txog nws cov tsev neeg ntawm Intel-based workstations khiav Windows NT lossis Red Hat Linux (kuj saib SGI Visual Workstation) ua pov thawj los ua kev puas tsuaj nyiaj txiag, thiab ua kom cov neeg muaj kev ruaj ntseg hauv SGI qhov kev cog lus rau nws tus kheej MIPS -qhov kab.


Hloov mus rau Itanium

Xyoo 1998, SGI tau tshaj tawm tias cov tiam tom ntej ntawm nws cov cav tov yuav tsis yog raws li lawv tus kheej MIPS processors, tab sis cov "super-chip" los ntawm Intel, lub npe hu ua "Merced" thiab tom qab ntawd hu ua Itanium. Kev txhim kho rau nws tus kheej cov txheej txheem high-end tau raug txo, thiab nws tau npaj tias R10000 yuav dhau los ua qhov kev sib tw ua tiav hauv MIPS. MIPS Technologies yuav tsom nkaus rau hauv lub lag luam embedded, qhov twg nws tau muaj ib co kev vam meej, thiab SGI yuav tsis muaj peev xwm tsim txoj kev loj hlob ntawm ib tug CPU uas, txij li qhov kev ua tsis tiav ntawm ARC, pom siv xwb hauv lawv cov tshuab. Lub tswv yim no tau khiav sai sai. Ua ntej thaum xyoo 1999 nws tau meej meej txog qhov Itanium yuav raug xa tawm lig dhau los thiab yuav tsis muaj qhov chaw nyob ze ntawm qhov kev ua tau pom zoo. Raws li qhov ntau dua qeeb ntau, MIPS 'cov R10000-cav ua haujlwm uas twb muaj lawm nce zuj zus lawm. Nws thiaj li tau raug yuam ua kom paub cov MIPS processors sai dua, R12000, R14000 thiab R16000, uas tau siv ntau hom qauv ntawm xyoo 2002 txog 2006.


SGI thawj lub Isandum-based system yog qhov short-lived SGI 750 chaw ua haujlwm, pib xyoo 2001. SGI's MIPS-based systems tsis yuav tsum tau superseded kom txog thaum lub lag luam ntawm Itanium 2-based Altix servers thiab Prism workstations qee lub sij hawm tom qab. Tsis zoo li lub MIPS, uas tau khiav IRIX, Lub tshuab Itanium siv SSS Linux Enterprise Server nrog SGI enhancements raws li lawv qhov system. SGI siv Transitive Corporation QuickTransit software tso cai rau lawv daim ntawv teev kev ua tiav MIPS / IRIX khiav (hauv emulation) ntawm qhov tshiab Itanium / Linux platform.


Hauv qhov chaw ua lag luam tus neeg Asium 2-raws li Altix nws thiaj li hloov qhov MIPS-based Origin khoom kab. Hauv kev ua lag luam, qhov hloov mus rau Itanium tsis tiav ua ntej SGI tawm hauv kev ua lag luam.


Lub Altix yog lub khoos phis tshaj plaws hauv lub ntiaj teb hauv 2006, yog tias qhov "computer" txhais tias yog ib qho khoom ua si ntawm kev kho mob hauv ib qho kev ua haujlwm ntawm ib qho kev khiav hauj lwm. Lub Altix muaj 512 Cov khoom lag luam uas khiav hauv ib qho kev lom ntawm Linux. Ib pawg ntawm 20 cav yog ces tus thib yim ceev tshaj plaws supercomputer. Txhua tus supercomputers sai dua tau pawg, tab sis tsis muaj ntau npaum li FLOPS ib lub tshuab. Txawm li cas los xij, supercomputers tsis ntev los no ntau pawg ntawm cov tshuab uas tsis yog muaj peev xwm tsawg. SGI lees paub qhov no thiab nyob rau hauv 2007 tsiv tawm ntawm qhov "loj NUMA" qauv rau tej pawg ua ke.


Hloov mus Xeon

Txawm hais tias SGI tseem pheej ua lag luam Asanium-based cov cav tov, nws cov tshuab tsis ntev los no tau raws li Intel Xeon processor. Tus thawj Altix XE cov qauv siv cov tshuab qis dua, tab sis thaum Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 2006 cov kab xE muaj peev xwm tshaj li cov Itanium cov cav tov los ntawm qee qhov ntsuas (xws li, kev siv zog hauv FLOPS / W, ntom hauv FLOPS / m3, nqi / FLOPS). Cov XE1200 thiab XE1300 cov neeg siv tau siv cov qauv khawm. Qhov no yog ib qho tawm los ntawm cov ntshiab NUMA architectures ntawm qhov ua ntej Itanium thiab MIPS servers.


Nyob rau hauv Lub Rau Hli 2007, SGI tshaj tawm lub Altix ICE 8200, ib txoj kab xe Xeon nrog txog li 512 Xeon cores ib khab. Ib qho Altix ICE 8200 nyob rau ntawm New Mexico Computing Applications Center (nrog 14336 processors) nyob rau ntawm tus naj npawb 3 rau ntawm daim ntawv TOP500 ntawm lub Kaum Ib Hlis 2007.