Tsev > Exhibition > Ntsiab lus

tso suab zaub

May 04, 2017

Ib tug tso suab zaub (kuj 3D zaub) yog ib tug zaub ntaus ntawv muaj peev xwm ntawm conveying tob xaav kom tus tuav los ntawm txoj kev stereopsis rau binocular tsis pom kev.


Hom - Stereoscopy vs. 3D

Cov yooj yim txheej txheem ntawm lub tso suab qhia yog los qhia offset dluab uas tso tawm kom pom nyias mus rau sab laug thiab txoj cai lub qhov muag. Ob yam no 2D offset dluab ces ua ke nyob rau hauv lub hlwb muab lub xaav ntawm 3D tob. Txawm tias lub sij hawm "3D" yog ubiquitously siv, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb kom nco ntsoov tias qhov kev nthuav qhia ntawm dual 2D dluab yog nyias txawv los ntawm displaying ib tug duab nyob rau hauv peb daim ntawv qhia txog qhov ntev. Qhov tseem ceeb sib txawv tiag 3D qhia yog hais tias cov observer lub taub hau thiab ob lub qhov muag taw yuav tsis ua rau kom cov lus qhia txog lub 3-dimensional khoom raug tso tawm kom pom. Piv txwv li, holographic qhia tsis muaj li cov kev txwv. Zoo ib yam li yuav ua li cas nyob rau hauv lub suab tu tub tu kiv nws tseem tsis tau mus recreate ib tug tag nrho 3-dimensional lub suab teb pawg nrog ob tug stereophonic hais lus, nws yog zoo li no ib tug overstatement ntawm muaj peev xwm ua rau xa mus rau dual 2D dluab raws li ua "3D". Lub tseeb lub sij hawm "Stereoscopic" yog ntau cumbersome tshaj cov misnomer "3D", uas tau raug entrenched tom qab ntau xyoo lawm ntawm unquestioned mloog. Nws yog kom nco ntsoov tias txawm tias feem ntau Stereoscopic qhia tsis tsim nyog tau txais raws li tiag tiag 3D zaub, tag nrho cov tiag tiag 3D zaub kuj Stereoscopic qhia vim hais tias lawv tau raws li qhov tsawg dua kev zoo li.


Stereo qhia

Raws li cov ntsiab cai ntawm stereopsis, piav los ntawm Sir Charles Wheatstone nyob rau hauv lub 1830s, Stereoscopic technology muab ib tug txawv cov duab rau tus tuav lub sab laug thiab txoj cai ob lub qhov muag. Cov nram qab no yog ib co ntawm cov kev txhawb thiab methodologies ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv ib co ntawm cov ntau notable Stereoscopic systems uas tau raug tsim.


Sab-los-sab dluab


QQ 截图 20170504090917.png

"Thaum ntxov noog catches lub cab" Stereograph luam tawm nyob rau hauv 1900 los ntawm North-Western View Co. ntawm Baraboo, Wisconsin, digitally rov qab los.

Tsoos Stereoscopic photography muaj tsim ib tug 3D illusion pib los ntawm ib khub ntawm 2D dluab, ib tug stereogram. Qhov yooj yim txoj kev uas yuav txhim khu tob xaav nyob rau hauv lub hlwb yog mus muab lub qhov muag ntawm tus tuav nrog ob tug sib txawv dluab, cov sawv cev ob xaav ntawm tib yam twj paj nruas, nrog ib tug me sib txawv raws nraim sib npaug zos rau tej kev xam pom hais tias ob lub qhov muag lawm tau txais nyob rau hauv binocular tsis pom kev.

Yog hais tias eyestrain thiab distortion yog yuav tsum tau zam, txhua tug ntawm ob tug 2D dluab dua yuav tsum tau hais rau txhua tus lub qhov muag ntawm tus tuav yog li ntawd ib yam khoom ntawm infinite deb pom los ntawm cov tuav yuav tsum tau ntaus nqi los ntawm uas qhov muag thaum nws yog qhia ncaj nraim, tus tuav ob lub qhov muag raug tej nuj nqis hla tsis diverging. Thaum daim duab muaj tsis muaj kwv infinite deb, xws li ib tug ntug los yog ib tug huab, cov duab yuav tsum tau spaced correspondingly ze zog ua ke.

Lub sab-los-sab txoj kev yog tsis tshua muaj tej yam yooj yim los ua, tab sis nws yuav tsis yooj yim los yog tsis xis rau saib tsis kho qhov muag pab.


Stereoscope thiab stereographic phaib

Ib tug stereoscope yog ib tug ntaus ntawv rau saib stereographic cards, uas yog daim ntawv uas muaj ob cais dluab uas luam sab ntawm sab yuav tsim tau lub illusion ntawm ib tug peb-dimensional duab.


transparency viewers

Officers ntawm lub tso suab views sau rau ntawm ib pob tshab puag yog saib los ntawm kis teeb. Ib tug kom zoo dua ntawm transparency saib yog lub sij hawm rau ib tug dav, xav zoo zoo dynamic ntau tshaj yog cov tswv yim nrog prints rau ib tug opaque puag; lwm yog hais tias ib tug dav teb saib yuav tsum tau nthuav tawm vim cov dluab, raug illuminated los ntawm lub rear, tej zaum yuav muab tso rau ntau ze zog mus rau cov lo ntsiab muag.

Cov kev xyaum ntawm saib zaj duab xis-raws li Stereoscopic Transparencies hnub tsawg kawg yog li thaum ntxov raws li xyoo 1931, thaum Tru-Vue pib ua lag luam poob lawm ntawm lub tso suab views on ib daim hlab ntawm 35 hli zaj duab xis uas tau noj los ntawm ib tug txhais tes tuav bakelite tuav. Nyob rau hauv 1939, ib tug hloov thiab miniaturized variation ntawm no technology, ua hauj lwm cov duab los qhia disks muaj xya khub ntawm me me Kodachrome xim zaj duab xis Transparencies, twb qhia raws li cov View-Master.


Lub taub hau mounted qhia

Tus neeg siv feem ntau ntoo ib lub kaus mom hlau los yog tsom iav nrog ob tug me me LCD los yog OLED lus nrog magnifying lo ntsiab muag, ib qho rau ib lub qhov muag. Lub tshuab yuav siv tau los qhia tso suab films, cov dluab los yog kev ua si. Lub taub hau mounted qhia tej zaum kuj yuav ua ke nrog lub taub hau-mus txog qhovtwg pab kiag li lawm, uas tus neeg siv mus rau "saib ib ncig" lub virtual ntiaj teb no los tsiv lawv lub taub hau, tshem tawm qhov xav tau rau ib tug nyias muaj nyias ib maub los.

Tshuav rau sai txaav nyob rau hauv computer graphics thiab ntxiv miniaturization ntawm video thiab lwm yam khoom no pab kiag li lawm yog thaum pib los mus ua nyob rau hauv ntau cov nqi. Lub taub hau mounted los yog wearable tsom iav tej zaum yuav siv los saib ib tug saib-los ntawm cov duab yuam raws li qhov tiag tiag ntiaj teb no saib, tsim dab tsi yog hu ua augmented kev muaj tiag. Qhov no yog ua los ntawm reflecting video dluab los ntawm cov paab tsom iav. Lub ntiaj teb no tiag saib yog pom los ntawm cov iav 'paab nto.


Anaglyph

Nyob rau hauv ib tug anaglyph, cov dluab ob yog superimposed nyob rau hauv ib tug additive teeb chaw los ntawm ob cov ntxaij lim dej, ib tug liab thiab ib tug cyan. Nyob rau hauv ib tug rho teeb chaw, cov dluab ob yog luam nyob rau hauv tib lub complementary xim rau ntawv dawb. Tsom iav uas dawb lias ntxaij lim dej nyob rau hauv txhua lub qhov muag cais cov tsim nyog dluab los ntawm cancelling lub lim xim tawm thiab rendering lub complementary xim dub. Ib tug compensating cov txheej txheem, feem ntau hu ua Anachrome, siv ib tug me ntsis ntau pob tshab cyan lim nyob rau hauv lub patented tsom iav txuam nrog cov txheej txheem. Txheej txheem reconfigures raug anaglyph duab muaj tsawg parallax.

Ib tug lwm txoj rau lub ib txwm liab thiab cyan lim system ntawm anaglyph yog ColorCode 3-D, ib tug patented anaglyph system uas twb yees ua nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav tau ib anaglyph duab nyob rau hauv nrog cov NTSC TV standard, nyob rau hauv uas cov liab channel yog feem ntau nyom. ColorCode siv cov complementary xim daj thiab dub xiav on-screen, thiab cov xim ntawm lub tsom iav 'lo ntsiab muag yog amber thiab doog xiav.


polarization tshuab

Kom muab ib tug Stereoscopic daim duab, ob tug dluab yog npaj superimposed mus rau tib lub screen los ntawm ntau polarizing ntxaij lim dej. Cov tuav ris tsom iav uas tseem muaj ib tug khub ntawm polarizing lim oriented txawv (clockwise / counterclockwise nrog ncig polarization los yog ntawm 90 degree ces kaum, feem ntau yog 45 thiab 135 degrees, nrog linear polarization). Raws li txhua lim kis tsuas yog hais tias lub teeb uas yog piv polarized thiab blocks lub teeb polarized txawv, txhua lub qhov muag pom ib tug txawv daim duab. Qhov no yog siv los tsim ib tug peb-dimensional nyhuv los ntawm projecting tus tib scene mus rau hauv ob lub qhov muag, tab sis xwm los ntawm txawv me ntsis kev xaav. Tsis tas li ntawd, txij li thaum ob leeg lo ntsiab muag muaj tib xim, cov neeg uas muaj ib tug tseem ceeb qhov muag (amblyopia), qhov chaw uas ib lub qhov muag yog siv ntau, yog tau pom cov 3D nyhuv, yav tas los negated los ntawm qhov kev sib cais ntawm ob xim.

Yeej polarization muaj ib tug zoo dua tshaj linear polarization, nyob rau hauv uas tus tuav tsis tau muaj lawv lub taub hau upright thiab haum raws li lub screen rau lub polarization mus ua hauj lwm kom zoo. Nrog linear polarization, tig lub tsom iav toj ua rau cov ntxaij lim dej mus tawm ntawm kawm tuab si lug nrog lub screen cov ntxaij lim dej ua cov duab kom ploj thiab rau txhua tus lub qhov muag mus saib cov lus rov ncej yooj yim dua. Rau ncig polarization, lub polarizing nyhuv ua hauj lwm tsis hais txog ntawm yuav ua li cas tus tuav lub taub hau yog mus raws li nrog lub screen xws li qaij de toj, los yog txawm upside down. Lub sab laug qhov muag yuav xwb tseem saib tau cov duab npaj rau nws, thiab vice versa, tsis muaj fading los yog crosstalk.

Polarized teeb reflected los ntawm ib tug dog dig tsab ntawv tsa suab duab screen feem ntau loses feem ntau ntawm nws polarization. Yog li ntawd ib qho kim nyiaj screen los yog aluminized kev tshuaj ntsuam nrog negligible polarization tsis muaj yuav tsum tau siv. Tag nrho cov hom ntawm polarization yuav ua nyob rau hauv ib tug darkening ntawm lub tso tawm kom pom cov duab thiab poorer zoo piv rau uas tsis yog-3D dluab. Lub teeb ntawm lub teeb yog feem ntau tawm txim liab raws li ib tug random sau los ntawm polarizations, thaum ib tug polarization lim tsuas kis ib feem ntawm lub teeb. Raws li ib tug tshwm sim, cov kev tshuaj ntsuam duab yog ib tsos tsaus tsawv. Qhov no darkening yuav compensated los ntawm nce lub qhov ci ntawm lub projector teeb qhov chaw. Yog hais tias cov thawj zaug polarization lim tso ntawm lub teeb thiab cov duab tiam caij, lub teeb khov ciav cov duab lub caij yog tsis muaj ntau dua li ib txwm tsis muaj lub polarizing lim, thiab zuag qhia tag nrho cov duab zoo kis tau mus rau qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam yog tsis cuam tshuam.


dab noj hnub txoj kev

Nrog rau cov dab noj hnub txoj kev, ib tug shutter blocks teeb los ntawm txhua tsim nyog qhov muag thaum lub converse qhov muag duab yog npaj rau qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam. Cov zaub alternates ntawm sab laug thiab txoj cai dluab, thiab qhib thiab kaw lub shutters nyob rau hauv lub tsom iav los yog tuav nyob rau hauv synchronization nrog cov dluab ntawm qhov screen. Qhov no yog lub hauv paus ntawm lub Teleview system uas yog siv luv luv nyob rau hauv 1922.

Ib tug variation rau cov dab noj hnub txoj kev yog siv nyob rau hauv LCD shutter tsom iav. Tsom iav uas muaj kua siv lead ua uas yuav cia lub teeb los ntawm nyob rau hauv synchronization nrog cov dluab nyob rau hauv cov xinesmas, TV los yog computer screen, siv lub tswvyim ntawm lwm ncej sequencing. Qhov no yog tus qauv siv los ntawm nVidia, XpanD 3D, thiab ua ntej lawm Imax systems. Ib tug drawback ntawm cov qauv no yog qhov yuav tsum tau rau txhua tus neeg saib hnav kim, hluav taws xob tsom iav uas yuav tsum tau synchronized nrog cov zaub system siv ib tug wireless teeb liab los yog txuas hlau. Lub shutter-tsom iav yog hnyav zog tshaj feem ntau polarized tsom iav, tab sis yog sib zog ua qauv yog tsis muaj hnyav dua ib txhia looj tsom iav dub los yog deluxe polarized tsom iav. [4] Txawm li cas los cov tshuab tsis yuav tsum tau ib tug silver screen rau npaj dluab.

Kua siv lead ua teeb li qub ua hauj lwm los ntawm rotating lub teeb ntawm ob polarizing ntxaij lim dej. Vim cov hauv polarizers, LCD shutter-tsom iav tsaus ntuj cov zaub duab ntawm tej LCD, ntshav, los yog projector duab tau qhov twg los, uas muaj cov tshwm sim uas dluab tshwm dimmer thiab sib piv yog qis tshaj rau tej uas tsis yog-3D saib. Qhov no yog tsis tas ib tug pab teeb meem; rau qee yam ntawm cov lus uas yog twb heev ci nrog neeg pluag grayish dub ntau ntau, LCD shutter tsom iav yuav tau txhim kho cov duab zoo.


Cuam lim technology

Dolby 3D siv cov kev wavelengths ntawm liab, ntsuab, thiab xiav rau hauv txoj cai qhov muag, thiab sib txawv wavelengths ntawm liab, ntsuab, thiab xiav rau sab laug qhov muag. Tsom iav uas lim tawm lub heev wavelengths tso cai rau cov wearer mus ntsib ib tug 3D duab. Qhov no technology eliminates lub kim nyiaj cov ntxaij vab tshaus uas yuav tsum tau polarized tshuab xws li RealD, uas yog feem ntau 3D zaub system nyob rau hauv theaters. Nws, txawm li cas los, yuav tsum tau ntau npaum li cas kim tsom iav dua lub polarized systems. Nws kuj hu ua spectral zuag filtering los yog wavelength multiplex visualization

Cov nyuam qhuav nkag tau Omega 3D / Panavision 3D system kuj siv no technology, tab sis yog nrog ib tug dav spectrum thiab ntau "cov hniav" mus rau qhov "zuag" (5 rau txhua lub qhov muag nyob rau hauv lub Omega / Panavision system). Cov kev siv ntawm ntau spectral bands ib qhov muag eliminates qhov xav tau kom muaj xim txheej txheem cov duab, yuav tsum tau los ntawm lub Dolby system. Tusyees faib qhov pom spectrum ntawm lub qhov muag muab tus tuav ib tug ntau so "xav" raws li lub teeb zog thiab cov xim tshuav yog ze li ntawm 50-50. Ib yam li cov Dolby system, lub Omega system yuav siv nrog dawb los yog nyiaj cov ntxaij vab tshaus. Tab sis nws muaj peev xwm yuav siv tau nrog tog twg los zaj duab xis los yog cov projectors, tsis zoo li cov Dolby cov ntxaij lim dej uas tsuas yog siv rau ib tug cov system nrog ib tug xim kho processor yog muab los ntawm Dolby. Lub Omega / Panavision system kuj pab leg ntaubntawv hais tias lawv tsom iav yog pheej yig dua mus manufacture tshaj cov neeg siv los ntawm Dolby. Nyob rau hauv Lub rau hli ntuj 2012 lub Omega 3D / Panavision 3D system twb txiav los ntawm DPVO Theatrical, uas marketed nws sawv cev ntawm Panavision, xam "nyuaj ntiaj teb no economic thiab 3D kev ua lag luam tej yam kev mob". Txawm tias DPVO yaj nws ua lag ua luam ua hauj lwm, Omega Optical tseem txhawb thiab muag 3D tshuab los uas tsis yog-theatrical ciaj uas muag. Omega Optical lub 3D system muaj projection cov ntxaij lim dej thiab 3D tsom-iav. Nyob rau hauv tas li ntawd mus rau lub passive Stereoscopic 3D system, Omega Optical tau ua enhanced anaglyph 3D tsom-iav. Lub Omega tus liab / cyan anaglyph tsom iav siv complex hlau oxide nyias zaj duab xis coatings thiab zoo annealed iav optics.


Autostereoscopy

Nyob rau hauv no txoj kev, tsom-iav yog tsis tsim nyog los saib lub Stereoscopic duab. Lenticular lens thiab parallax barrier technologies koom nrog imposing ob (los yog xav paub ntxiv) cov dluab ntawm lub tib lub daim ntawv, nyob rau hauv kev nqaim, alternating ib daim hlab, thiab siv ib tug kev tshuaj ntsuam hais tias yog blocks ib tug ntawm cov dluab ob 'ib daim hlab (nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm parallax tej) los yog siv ib yam li nqaim ntsiab muag khoov ib daim hlab ntawm cov duab thiab ua nws yuav tshwm sim los sau cov duab tag nrho (nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm lenticular prints). Yuav kom tsim tau cov Stereoscopic nyhuv, tus neeg yuav tsum tau positioned kom ib tug qhov muag pom ib yam ntawm cov dluab ob thiab lwm yam pom rau lwm yam. Kho qhov muag hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm multiview pib-stereoscopy tau paub rau ntau tshaj ib tiam.

Ob dluab yog npaj rau ib tug high-nce, corrugated screen uas qhia lub teeb nyob rau mob cov ces kaum. Nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav pom cov Stereoscopic duab, tus tuav yuav tsum zaum nyob rau hauv ib nqaim heev lub uas yog ze li ntawm perpendicular mus rau qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam, limiting qhov luaj li cas ntawm cov neeg tuaj saib. Lenticular siv rau theatrical kev nthuav qhia ntawm heev heev luv nyob rau hauv Russia los ntawm 1940 mus 1948 thiab nyob rau hauv 1946 rau lub feature-ntev zaj duab xis Robinzon Kruzo

Tab sis nws siv nyob rau hauv theatrical presentations tau es txwv, lenticular tau lug siv rau ntau yam ntawm novelty khoom thiab tau txawm tau siv nyob rau hauv pib xyaum ua 3D photography. Tsis ntev los no siv muaj xws li cov Fujifilm FinePix tiag 3D nrog ib tug autostereoscopic zaub uas twb tso tawm nyob rau hauv 2009. Lwm yam piv txwv rau cov no technology xws li autostereoscopic LCD qhia rau saib, phau ntawv sau, TVs, mobile xov tooj thiab cov gaming pab kiag li lawm, xws li cov Nintendo 3DS.


lwm yam kev

Ib autostereogram yog ib tug hluas-duab stereogram (SIS), tsim los ua tau ib lub nrig txog kev pom illusion ntawm ib tug peb-dimensional (3D) scene los ntawm ib tug ob-dimensional duab nyob rau hauv tus tib neeg lub hlwb. Nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav paub 3D daim nyob rau hauv cov autostereograms, lub hlwb yuav tsum kov yeej lub feem ntau tsis siv neeg sib haum ntawm tsom thiab vergence.

Lub Pulfrich nyhuv yog ib tug psychophysical percept nyob rau sab suab ntawm ib tug kwv nyob rau hauv lub teb ntawm saib yog txhais los ntawm lub nrig txog kev pom cortex li muaj ib lub qhov tob tivthaiv, vim muaj ib tug txheeb ze sib txawv nyob rau hauv lub teeb liab timings nruab nrab ntawm ob lub qhov muag.

Prismatic tsom iav kom tus ntoo khaub lig-saib yooj yim raws li zoo raws li tshaj / nyob rau hauv-saib tau, piv txwv muaj xws li cov KMQ tuav.

Qoj stereoscopy yog ib daim duab zaub txheej txheem tiav los ntawm sai sai alternating zaub ntawm sab laug thiab txoj cai sab ntawm ib lub stereogram. Pom nyob rau hauv animated GIF hom rau lub web.


3D qhia

Tiag tiag 3D qhia displaying ib tug duab nyob rau hauv peb daim ntawv qhia txog qhov ntev. Qhov tseem ceeb sib txawv los ntawm Stereoscopic qhia nrog tsuas yog ob tug 2D offset dluab yog hais tias lub observer lub taub hau thiab ob lub qhov muag no yuav ua rau kom cov lus qhia txog lub 3-dimensional khoom raug tso tawm kom pom.


Volumetric zaub

Volumetric qhia siv ib co cev mechanism mus tso saib cov ntsiab lus ntawm lub teeb nyob rau hauv ib lub ntim. Tej qhia siv voxels es tsis txhob ntawm pixels. Volumetric qhia muaj xws li multiplanar qhia, uas muaj ntau yam zaub dav hlau stacked li, thiab rotating vaj huam sib luag qhia, qhov twg ib yam vaj huam sib luag sweeps tawm ib ntim.

Lwm yam technologies tau tsim rau qhov teeb dots nyob rau hauv cov huab cua saum toj no ib tug ntaus ntawv. Ib tug infrared laser yog teem rau cov lo lus uas nyob rau hauv qhov chaw, generating ib tug me me npuas ntawm ntshav uas emits pom lub teeb.


Holographic qhia

Holographic zaub yog ib cov zaub technology uas muaj lub peev xwm los muab tag nrho cov plaub muag mechanism: binocular disparity, tsab ntawv tsa suab parallax, kev pab thiab convergence. Lub 3D khoom yuav tau saib tsis muaj hnav muaj kev tshwj xeeb tsom-iav thiab tsis muaj qhov muag pom qaug zog yuav tau los rau tib neeg lub qhov muag.

Nyob rau hauv 2013, ib tug Silicon hav tuam txhab Leia Inc pib raug holographic qhia zoo suited rau mobile pab kiag li lawm (watches, smartphones los yog ntsiav tshuaj) siv ib tug multi-directional backlight thiab tas ib tug dav full-parallax lub saib kom pom 3D ntsiab lus tsis muaj qhov yuav tsum tau ntawm tsom iav.


Integral imaging

Integral imaging yog ib qho autostereoscopic los yog multiscopic 3D zaub, lub ntsiab lus uas nws qhia txog ib tug 3D duab tsis muaj kev siv ntawm tshwj xeeb tsom iav nyob rau ib feem ntawm tus tuav. Nws achieves no los tso ib tug array ntawm microlenses (xws li ib tug lenticular lens) nyob rau hauv pem hauv ntej ntawm daim duab, qhov twg txhua lens zoo sib txawv nyob ntawm seb saib lub. Yog li es tsis displaying ib tug 2D duab uas zoo nkaus li tib los ntawm txhua lub tsheb, nws reproduces ib 4D teeb teb, tsim lub tso suab dluab uas muaj parallax thaum tus tuav tsiv.


Compressive teeb Teb Lus

Ib tug tshiab zaub technology hu ua "compressive teeb teb" yog raug tsim. Cov tsab qhia siv fawm kib LCD panels thiab compression algorithms thaum lub sij hawm ntawm zaub. Designs xws li dualand multilayer pab kiag li lawm uas yog tsav los ntawm algorithms xws li xoo tomography thiab Non-tsis zoo matrix factorization thiab uas tsis yog-tsis zoo tensor factorization.