Tsev > Exhibition > Ntsiab lus

Txheej txheem ntawm lub nti (SoCs) Structure

Mar 08, 2019

Lub SoC muaj cov chav ua haujlwm kho vaj tse, nrog rau cov microprocessors uas khiav software code, nrog rau cov kev sib txuas lus sib txuas rau kev sib txuas, tswj, kev sib txuas thiab kev sib txuas ntawm cov kev ua haujlwm zoo.


Cov Cheeb Tsam Cheeb Tsam

Processor qhov cores

Ib qho SoC yuav tsum muaj tsawg kawg yog ib tug core processor, tab sis feem ntau tus SoC muaj ntau tshaj ib tus ntxhais. Processor cores yuav ua tau ib lub microcontroller, microprocessor (μP), digital teeb liab processor (DSP) los yog daim ntawv thov kev qhia teeb processor (ASIP) core. Cov ASIPs muaj cov kev qhia uas yog kho kom haum rau qhov kev sau npe thiab tsim kom muaj ntau dua cov lus qhia ua haujlwm rau ib hom haujlwm ua haujlwm. Multiprocessor SoCs muaj ntau tshaj ib tus ntxhais processor los ntawm txhais.


Seb ib leeg twg-ntxhais, tub ntxhais los yog ntaucov, SoC processor cores feem ntau siv RISC kev qhia tsim architectures. RISC architectures yog ib qho zoo dua CISC processors rau systems-on-chip vim hais tias lawv xav tau tsawg dua cov logic, thiab yog li ntawd tsawg zog thiab thaj tsam ntawm lub rooj tsavxwm, thiab hauv kev lag luam embedded thiab mobile computers, thaj tsam thiab lub zog yog feem ntau heev txwv. Hauv particular, SoC processor cores feem ntau siv ARM architecture vim nws yog processor processor teev raws li tus IP tub ntxhais thiab muaj hwj huam ntau tshaj x 86.


Puas

Cov lus qhia ntxiv: Khoos phis tawj

Systems-on-Chip yuav tsum muaj cov cim xeeb ntawm semiconductor los ua lawv lej, xws li ua microcontrollers thiab lwm lub nruab. Nyob ntawm daim ntawv thov, SoC nco tau ib lub cim xeeb hierarchy thiab cache hierarchy. Hauv kev ua lag luam hauv xov tooj ntawm mobile, qhov no feem ntau, tab sis nyob rau hauv ntau lub qis zog embedded microcontrollers, qhov no yog tsis tsim nyog.


Nco kev yees rau SoCs xws li nyeem ntawv-tsuas memory (ROM), random-nco (RAM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM) thiab flash nco. Raws li nyob rau hauv lwm lub computer systems, RAM yuav subdivided rau hauv kuj ceev nrooj tab sis kim kim RAM zoo tshaj (SRAM) thiab qeeb qeeb tab sis pheej yig dynamic RAM (DRAM). Thaum twg tus SoC muaj ib lub tsev teev ntuj zoo tshaj plaws, SRAM feem ntau yog siv los siv cov npe sau ntawv thiab cov cores 'L1 caches whereas DRAM yuav siv rau qib qis ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj hierarchy nrog rau lub ntsiab cim xeeb. "Lub ntsiab lus tseem ceeb" tej zaum yuav raug rau ib tus kws ua haujlwm nkaus xwb (uas yog ib qho tseem ceeb) thaum lub SoC muaj ntau hom kev lag luam, qhov twg nws muab faib ua cim thiab yuav tsum raug xa tawm ntawm § Intermodule kev sib txuas lus ntawm chip mus rau lwm tus processor [11] Ntxiv rau kev sib tham ntawm tej teeb meem kev nco, saib cache coherence thiab nco latency.


Interfaces

SoCs muaj xws li sab nraud interfaces, feem ntau rau cov kev cai sib txuas lus. Cov no feem ntau yog raws li cov qauv kev lag luam xws li USB, FireWire, Ethernet, USART, SPI, HDMI, I²C, etc. Cov interfaces yuav txawv raws li daim ntawv thov. Wireless networking protocols xws li Wi-nkaus, Bluetooth, 6LoWPAN thiab kev sib txuas lus nyob ze yuav tau txais kev txhawb siab.


Thaum xav tau, SoCs muaj xws li analog interfaces xws li analog-rau-digital thiab digital-rau-analog hloov siab, feem ntau rau cov teeb liab. Cov no yuav muaj peev xwm sib txuas nrog ntau hom kev ntsuas los yog cov tshuab khiav lag luam, nrog rau kev hloov cov ntse. Tej zaum lawv yuav txuas nrog daim ntawv thov los yog cov ntaub thaiv npog. [Nb 5] los yog lawv yuav nyob sab hauv lub SoC, xws li yog tias lub tshuab ua kom muaj qhov sib txuas rau SoC thiab nws cov kev nyeem yuav tsum hloov mus rau cov teeb meem digital rau kev ua zauv.


Cov teeb meem digital

Cov teeb meem digital processor (DSP) cores feem ntau muaj nyob rau lub tshuab-rau-nti. Lawv ua cov haujlwm khiav lag luam hauv tshuab-rau-nti rau cov sensors, actuators, cov ntaub ntawv sau, cov ntaub ntawv kev ntsuam xyuas thiab kev ua ntau hom. Cov khab nias DSP feem ntau siv cov lus qhia ntev ntev (VLIW) thiab kev qhia tib yam, ntau cov ntaub ntawv (SIMD) kev qhia tsim architectures, thiab yog vim li no thiaj li txaus siab siv cov kev qhia kev sib txig sib luag ntawm kev ua haujlwm sib luag thiab kev ua tiav ntawm superscalar. DSP cores feem ntau muaj cov lus qhia tshwj xeeb rau cov lus qhia, thiab li muaj xws li ntawv thov tshwj xeeb-teeb cov txheej txheem (ASIP). Xws li cov lus qhia hauv daim ntawv thov sib txuas ua ke rau cov cuab yeej kho vaj tse uas muaj nuj nqi uas teev cov lus qhia.


Cov lus qhia ntawm DSP muaj xws li multiply-accumulate, Fast Fourier transform, fused multiply-add, thiab convolutions.


Lwm yam

Raws li nrog rau lwm lub computer systems, SoCs yuav tsum tau siv sij hawm los tsim cov phiaj xwm moos, tswj kev ua haujlwm ntawm SoC thiab muab lub ntsiab lus sij hawm rau teebmeem ua daim ntawv thov ntawm SoC, yog tsim nyog. Nrov lub sijhawm yog cov crystal oscillators thiab theem xauv loops.


System-on-chip peripherals nrog rau cov timer-timers, cov sij hawm ntawm cov sij hawm thiab lub zog-rau pib dua generators. SoCs kuj muaj xws li cov tswj kev tswj hluav taws xob thiab kev tswj fais fab.