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Tus ua haujlwm ntawm TFT-LCD kua siv lead ua kua

Jul 03, 2018

Tus ua haujlwm ntawm TFT-LCD kua siv lead ua kua

Qhov kev faib tawm ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua (LC, kua siv lead ua kua)
Feem ntau peb xav tias qhov teeb meem muaj peb lub xeev xws li dej, uas yog cov kua fais fab-lub cev thiab lub xeev loj. Qhov tseeb, peb lub xeev cov teeb meem muaj lwm lub xeev txawv rau ntau yam. Nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua peb tham, nws yog ib lub xeev ntawm cov khoom thiab kua. Qhov tseeb, lub xeev no tsuas yog lub xeev xwb. Kev hloov cov txheej txheem ntawm cov khoom (saib daim duab 1), tsuav yog cov ntaub ntawv muaj cov txheej txheem saum toj no, uas yog, lub xeev tshwm sim ntawm cov khoom thiab cov kua, thiab tus physicist hu nws ua kua ua kua


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Tus thawj discovery ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua no tau ntau tshaj 100 xyoo dhau los. Xyoo 1888, Friedrich Reinitzer, tus botanist hauv Austria tau pom tias nws tau pom tias thaum cov roj cholesterol benzoate (cholesteryl benzoate) tau los ntawm cov nroj tsuag, thiab qhov chaw khomob tau rhaub mus rau 145.5 degrees C, Cov khoom yuav yaj thiab nthuav tawm ib nrab molten thiab pos huab ntawm cov khoom thiab cov kua ua kua. Qhov mob no yuav ua kom kub li 178.5 degrees C los ua cov kua tshuaj yogotropic (yogotropic kua). Nyob rau hauv 1889, tus German physicist O.Lehmann, tus physicist kawm theem hloov thiab thermodynamic equilibrium, nyob rau hauv 1889. Nyob rau hauv kev sojntsuam ntau, nws pom nyob rau hauv lub tshuab thawv polarising microscope uas khov thiab cov kua ua kua kua muaj qhov kho qhov muag ntawm cov (ib leeg), qhov muag kho heterogeneity (optical anisotropic) peculiar rau lub heterogenous crystallization, yog li cov kua crystalline yog hu ua kua siv lead ua kua. Tom qab ntawd, tus kws tshawb fawb yuav pom qhov tshiab discovery. Qhov xwm ntawm qhov teeb meem yog hu ua plaub lub xeev ntawm qhov teeb meem - kua siv lead ua kua (kua siv lead ua kua). Nws muaj cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov kua thiab cov khoom ntawm qhov kub thiab txias.
Feem ntau nyob rau hauv dej, lub lattice ntawm cov khoom nyob rau hauv cov khoom pib sov thiab ua puas lub lattice. Thaum lub ntsuas kub tshaj qhov teeb meem ntawm melting, nws dissolves rau hauv cov kua. Cov thermotropic kua Crystal yog sib txawv (saib daim duab 2). Thaum twg cov khoom kub, nws yuav tsis ua kua ncaj qha. Nws yuav yaj ua ntej thiab tsim cov kua siv lead ua kua. Thaum koj mus txuas ntxiv tshav kub, nws yuav yaj mus rau hauv cov kua. Nws yog ib qho tshwm sim ntawm cov kua (yogotropic kua). Qhov no yog qhov sib tw ua ob qho kev tshwm sim. Nyob rau hauv cov kua crystalline hauv lub xeev, nws muaj ib yam khoom hauv lub xeev thiab kua dej. Thaum cov kua siv lead ua kua dej tau pom lawm, vim tias muaj ntau hom, cov neeg nyob hauv cov cheeb tsam sib txawv nyias muaj nyias txoj hau kev siv ua kua ua kua. Hauv xyoo 1922, G. Friedel tau siv lub tshuab ua kom tshuab hnyav. Cov kev soj ntsuam tau raug muab sib cais ua ke rau hauv peb chav kawm ntawm Nematic Smectic thiab Cholesteric. Tab sis yog tias lawv raug muab faib raws li qhov kev txiav txim ntawm kev tsim molecular (saib daim duab 3), lawv tuaj yeem faib ua plaub pawg.

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1. lamellar kua siv lead ua (Sematic):
Cov qauv no yog tsim los ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules ua ke los tsim ib txheej ntawm ib txheej txheej. Cov kab xev ntev ntawm txhua lub txheej yog sib luag rau ib leeg. Thiab txoj kev coj ntawm qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab yog mus rau los yog nrog lub qaij kaum rau txhua lub txheej. Txij li thaum nws cov qauv zoo ib yam li cov siv lead ua, nws tseem hu ua nearest crystal. Qhov kev txiav txim parameter S (order parameter) yog qhov kev txiav txim ntawm tus qauv. Kev sib tsoo ntawm cov khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg thiab cov khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg 1. nyob rau hauv cov kab ua kua dej ua ntim ntawm lub cev yuav tawg vim yog qhov kub, yog li txheej txheem thiab txheej yooj yim. Tab sis lub molecules nyob rau hauv txhua txheej yog muaj zog, yog li lawv tsis yooj yim yuav tsum tau cuam tshuam. Yog li ntawd, nyob rau hauv cov monolayer, qhov kev npaj tsis yog kev ua kom haum thiab nplaum xwb. Yog tias peb siv lub phenomenon ntawm giant saib los piav txog lub cev cov khoom ntawm kua muaju. Nruab nrab nruab nrab ntawm ib pawg ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua dej yuav ua tau raws li vector (thawj coj), uas yog qhov kev txiav txim siab ntawm cov pab pawg cov kua siv lead ua molecules. Nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm lub kav dej crystal lamellar, cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yuav tsim ib lub qauv ntawm cov txheej txheem, kom cov xim sib txawv ntawm cov xim lamellar tau muab cais tawm raws li cov kev sib txawv ntawm cov vectors. Yog hais tias ntev lub axis ntawm lub lead ua molecule yog ntsug thoob, nws yog hu ua "Sematic A phase". Yog hais tias qhov ntev ntawm txoj hnyuv ntawm cov kua tshuaj ua kua molecule muaj qee lub kaum ntse ntse (qaij), nws hu ua "Sematic C theem". Nws muaj npe tom qab cov ntawv A, C, thiab lwm yam, uas yog hu ua raws li qhov kev txiav txim ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav, thiab ntxiv rau, yuav tsum muaj "Sematic B PHAs". E tiam sis peb pom tias B yog ib theem ntawm cov theem C. Vim li cas qhov C yog ib theem B. Yog tias tus kabmob yog ib theem B (saib daim duab 4). tsim kom muaj cov qauv khov.

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2. linear kua Crystal (Nematic):
Lo lus Nematic yog Greek lo lus, uas txhais tau hais tias tib lub ntsiab lus ua cov lus Askiv. Nws yog mas vim nws zoo li ntxhuav qauv thaum pom cov kua siv lead ua kua muag nrog lub qhov muag liab qab. Cov kua siv lead ua kua no muaj qhov sib npaug ntawm ib qho chaw, thiab qhov ntev ntawm txhua tus pas nrig xws li cov kua qaub (crystal) ua rau xaiv qhov kev xaiv (uas yog, xa mus rau cov kua siv lead ua kua tshuaj). Raws li tus spindle thiab teem caij sib luag rau txhua lwm yam, thiab tsis zoo li cov kua nplaum ua kua nplaum, nws muaj ib cov qauv zoo nkauj. Piv nrog lub laminar siv lead ua kua, nws txoj kev tsis yog kom haum, uas yog qhov kev txiav txim siab parameter S yog me dua li cov yas siv lamellar. Cov kev ua si). Tawm siv kua Crystal yog feem ntau siv TN (Twisted nematic) LCD rau TFT LCD.
3. Cov cholesterol ua kua (cov cholesteric):
Lub hauv paus ntawm lub npe yog hais tias feem ntau ntawm lawv yog tsim los ntawm ib tug derivative ntawm cov cholesterol. Tab sis qee cov kua nplaum uas tsis muaj cov roj cholesterol kuj muaj cov kua ua kua no. Cov kua siv li no, raws li qhia hauv daim duab 5, yuav zoo npaum li cov kua ua kua linear yog tias nws pom ntawm ib txheej thiab ib txheej. Tab sis nyob rau hauv cov kev taw qhia ntawm Z axis, nws yuav pom nws cov vector directing. Lub thickness ntawm molecular txheej yuav tsum tau los ntawm 360 degrees ntawm kev sib hloov mus rau vector yog hu ua suab., Raws li txhua txheej yog raws nraim li cov kab siv ua kua tawm, ces nws tseem hu ua Chiral nematic theem, raws li cov cholesterin kua siv lead ua , cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules nyob hauv txoj kev taw qhia ntawm vertical direction, vim lawv kev coj. Txawv vectors yuav muaj qhov sib txawv los yog hluav taws xob sib txawv, thiab yog li tsim ntau yam ntxwv.

4. kua siv lead ua kua (disk):
Kuj hu ua cov kua qaub kua xoos, nws yog ib qho zoo li cov kua siv ua kua, tiam sis nws txoj kev haum yog zoo li ib tus ncej (discoid).
Yog hais tias peb faib cov txheej txheem molecular, nws yuav muab faib ua ob hom kua siv lead ua kua (polymer kua Crystal, polymerizing ntau cov tshuaj siv lead ua kua dej ua kua) thiab cov kua ua kua tsis muaj molecular kua. Nyob rau pawg no, daim TFT kua siv lead ua kua yog ib daim ntaub lim dej ua kua qis tsawg kawg nkaus. Yog hais tias yog vim li cas rau qhov tsim ntawm kua crystalline lub xeev, nws muaj peev xwm raug muab faib ua lub ntsuas kub. Cov kua crystalline kua siv lead ua (thermotropic) uas ua los ntawm cov kua crystalline yog tsim los ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua (lyotropic) uas ua los ntawm cov kua hauv cov kua crystalline. Nyob rau hauv kev sib tw dhau los, cov kua dej khovel ntawm cov kua hluav taws xob thiab feem ntau cov kua dej ua kua thermotropic feem ntau, uas ua rau cov kua siv lead ua kua uas muaj qhov hloov ntawm qhov kub thiab txias. Nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm ib tug solvent. Thaum cov concentration tsawg heev, cov molecules yog ua kom tawg nyob rau hauv ib qho hnyav thiab tsim cov kua tshuaj yogotropic. Txawm li cas los xij, thaum lub concentration ntau dua li ib qho tseemceeb concentration, cov molecules tsis txaus qhov chaw tsim ib qho kev faib tawm, thiab qee qhov ntawm cov molecules pib sib sau ua ke kom tsim ib lub sijhawm ntxiv kom txo tau qhov kev cuam tshuam ntawm qhov chaw. Qhov no ua rau daws anisotropic. Li no cov kua qaub ua kua lyotropic ua kua yog kua ua kua dej thaum lub kua siv lead ua kua molecules ncav cuag ib qho tseem ceeb hauv kev hnyav. Lub lyotropic kua Crystal muaj ib qho piv txwv zoo, lub xab npum. Thaum lub xab npum nyob hauv dej, nws yuav tsis tau ua kua, thiab tom qab nws tau ntev soaked hauv dej, Cov kab uas muaj cov cwj mem kua dawb ua yog nws cov kua crystalline.
Cov duab ntxim nyiam ntawm cov khoom siv ua kua
Vim hais tias cov qauv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog Anisotropic, qhov teebmeev ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm cov lus qhia txawv txawv. Nws tsuas yog tias cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules muaj hetero - cov xwm txheej hauv lub dielectric thiab kev ntsuas qis qis thiab zoo li ntawd. Yog li ntawd, peb siv tau cov khoom no los hloov qhov kev siv ntawm qhov teeb meem teeb. Cov nplai gray siv rau cov qauv module. Cov nram no yog cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua uas muaj feem xyuam rau qhov muag hluav taws xob.

Cov duab ntxim nyiam ntawm cov khoom siv ua kua
Vim hais tias cov qauv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog Anisotropic, qhov teebmeev ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm cov lus qhia txawv txawv. Nws tsuas yog tias cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules muaj hetero - cov xwm txheej hauv lub dielectric thiab kev ntsuas qis qis thiab zoo li ntawd. Yog li ntawd, peb siv tau cov khoom no los hloov qhov kev siv ntawm qhov teeb meem teeb. Cov nplai gray siv rau cov qauv module. Cov nram no yog cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua uas muaj feem xyuam rau qhov muag hluav taws xob.


1. dielectric coefficient dielectric permittivity:
Peb tuaj yeem cais cov dielectric coefficient ua ob yam khoom, uas yog cov uas ua rau lub vector thiab cov khoom sib txuas rau vector. Thaum cov kua siv lead ua kua, uas yog hu ua hom kev dielectric coefficient, yuav siv tau ua ib qho kev ua haujlwm sib luag, cov kua siv lead ua kua, uas yog hu ua dielectric coefficient, yog qhov tsis zoo, tsuas yog siv tau rau hauv lub vertical faib tshuab. Thaum muaj ib lub tebchaw uas siv fais fab, cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yuav yog qhov zoo lossis tsis zoo vim yog lub dielectric coefficient, uas pom tau hais tias qhov tig ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog ib qho uas tig mus ua ib qho hluav taws xob los txiav txim seb lub teeb puas nkag lossis tsis . Tam sim no feem ntau ntawm TN hom kua kua nplaum feem ntau siv los ntawm TFT LCD yog kua muaj zog nrog cov dielectric coefficient zoo. Thaum lub dielectric coefficient loj dua, qhov tseem ceeb ntawm qhov hluav taws xob (qhov pib qhov hluav taws xob) ntawm cov kua siv ua kua yuav me me. Yog li cov kua siv lead ua kua yuav ua haujlwm ntawm qhov qis dua.


2.Qhov kev ua lag luam ntawm kev zeem muag (kev ntsuas qis zog):
Vim hais tias feem ntau ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yog tsim los ntawm pas nrig xws li lossis phaj xws li cov khoom xyaw, muaj qee qhov sib txawv ntawm cov yam ntxwv ntawm lub cev nyob rau hauv cov kev taw qhia los sis txoj kev mus rau qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab xev ntawm lub molecule, yog li cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules tseem hu ua heterogeneous crystals . Xws li lub dielectric coefficient, qhov ntsuas tau tawg yog muab faib ua ob qho kev qhia nyob rau hauv kev coj ua tus thawj coj.
Ntxiv nrog rau siv lead ua ntawm ib qho dav hlau axis (uniaxial), nws muaj ob lub ntsiab lus ntawm kev sib txawv ntawm cov txheej txheem. Ib qho yog tsis muaj, uas yog hais txog qhov kev ntsuas ntawm txoj kev ncaj ncees ntawm txoj hauv kev tawg, yog li ntawd nws tsuas yog sau rau hauv tsis muaj. Thiab txoj kab nruab nrab txoj hauv kev txhais tau hais tias lub tshuab hluav taws xob tivthaiv ntawm nws txoj kev kaj nrig yog mus rau qhov pom kev ntawm qhov muag. Lwm tus yog ne, thiab nws yog hais txog extraordinary txoj sab ci. Kev ntsuas qis, thiab qhov txawv tshaj plaw txhais tau hais tias lub tshuab hluav taws xob tivthaiv ntawm nws txoj kev kaj nrig yog mus tib seem rau qhov pom kev ntawm qhov muag, thiab nws kuj qhia qhov txawv ntawm ob qhov qis ntawm qhov kev sib tw.
Raws li cov saum toj no, rau cov kua degellar kua crystal, cov kua siv lead ua kua thiab cov cholesterin kua siv lead ua, qhov kev taw qhia ntawm nws cov voj kev ncaj qha mus rau qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab ntawm lub molecule vim tias ntev bar zoo li cov khoom siv cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules. Thiab tom qab ntawd, referring rau qhov ntsuas ntawm cov axis siv lead ua, nws yuav muaj ob txoj kev nqes hluav taws xob, perpendicular mus rau cov kua siv lead ua ntev thiab qhov sib luag ntawm cov kua siv lead ua ntev, feem ntau. Cov kev taw qhia ntawm ob qhov kev coj, yog li thaum lub teeb uas ua kua dej ua kua, nws yuav raug cuam tshuam los ntawm ob qho kev txhawj xeeb, ua rau cov ntsev ua kua ntsev ntsev ntev ntev thiab cov roj ntsha uas siv mus ua haujlwm ntawm lub teeb yuav txawv dua.
Yog hais tias tus tshaj tawm nyob rau hauv uas cov kev taw qhia ntawm lub teeb mus ncig mus rau lub axis ntev ntawm lub molecule yog tsawg dua tus tshaj tawm perpendicular mus rau kev coj ntawm lub ntev axis, nws txhais tau hais tias lub refractive index ntawm lub ntev axis ntawm parallel molecule yog ntau tshaj qhov laj kab nyob rau ntawm txoj kev taw qhia (vim hais tias qhov ntsuas tau tawg yog qhov sib npaug ntawm cov teeb ntawm lub teeb), uas yog, lub cev, thiab peb hu nws ua kua dej ua kom pom qhov muag, thiab txheej txheej. Cov dej siv lead ua kua ua kua thiab cov kua tawm hauv cov kua hluav taws xob ua kua dej yuav luag tag nrho cov tshuaj pleev ua kua. Yog hais tias qhov kev taw qhia ntawm lub teeb tsiv mus rau qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab xwv sai dua, qhov ntsuas ntawm kev ua kom pom ntawm qhov ntev ntawm txoj kab mus ntev yog qhov tsawg tshaj qhov tawg nyob rau hauv txoj kev taw qhia. Peb hu nws ua kua ua kua uas muaj qhov muag tsis pom.

3. lwm yam ntxwv:
Ntxiv rau qhov ob yam tseem ceeb uas tau hais los saum no, muaj ntau ntau yam sib txawv, xws li lub nrig ntawm txhua lub sijhawm (koos pauv txhua hnub: kappa 11, kappa 22, kappa 33), uas muaj peb qhov tseem ceeb, feem ntau, kappa 11 hais txog cov ywjpheej constants ntawm splay, thiab kappa 22 yog hais txog lub qhov hloov ntawm kev ywj pheej. Cov naj npawb, kappa 33 hais txog lub qhov hloov ntawm qhov khoov (khoov). Ntxiv mus, cov coefficient viscosity coefficient (viscosity coefficient, ETA) yuav cuam tshuam txog kev hloov ceev thiab lub sij hawm ua lub sij hawm (lub sijhawm teb) ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules, qhov zoo dua qhov tseem ceeb, tab sis qhov yeeb yam no feem ntau cuam tshuam txog qhov ntsuas kub. Tsis tas li ntawd, qhov nqaj hlau nplaum (magnetic susceptibility) thiab cov kua siv lead ua kua kuj pom muaj. Kev sib raug zoo ntawm cov tog sib txawv yog faib rau cov teeb meem sib nqus thiab cov hluav taws xob coefficient (conductivity) thiab lwm yam.
Qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws hauv cov khoom siv ua kua ua kua yog qhov dielectric coefficient thiab lub ntsuas qis ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua. Lub dielectric coefficient yog tus cwj pwm ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua, uas yog lub hauv paus fais fab, thiab qhov kev ntsuas qis qis dua yog qhov tseem ceeb uas cuam tshuam cov kab ntawm lub teeb mus thaum lub teeb ci nkag rau cov kua siv lead ua kua. Thiab cov kua siv lead ua kua yog cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua nws tus kheej. Siv cov hluav taws xob, tswj kev sib hloov ntawm kua siv lead ua kua molecules, thiab cuam tshuam qhov kev taw qhia ntawm lub teeb, tsim ib qho grey sib txawv, raws li cov duab cov duab. Ntawm chav kawm, cov kua siv lead ua nws tus kheej tsis tuaj yeem siv los ua ib qho zaub, tab sis kuj xav tau lwm yam ntaub ntawv los pab, cov nram qab no peb xav ua kom paub cov ntaub ntawv ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua thiab cov khoom hauv qab no. Nws txoj haujlwm khiav haujlwm.
Polarizing phaj (Polarizer)
Kuv nco ntsoov tias nyob rau hauv tsev kawm ntawv qib siab physics, thaum qhia cov khoom ntawm lub cev uas muaj feem rau lub teeb, ntau qhov kev sim ntawm lub cev tau ua tiav los ua pov thawj tias lub teeb tseem yog ib lub zog. Cov kev taw qhia ntawm lub teeb nthwv dej yog mus rau lub teb hluav taws xob thiab qhov chaw nqos dej. Thiab cov hluav taws xob thiab sib nqus yam ntawm lub teeb yoj nws tus kheej yog perpendicular rau txhua lwm yam. Nws tau hais tias kev taw qhia ntawm kev tsiv thiab cov hluav taws xob thiab cov khoom sib nqus yog 22 cov mus tib seem. (saib Daim Duab 7) thiab txoj haujlwm ntawm lub ncov qaum teb yog zoo li lub laj kab, uas yuav thaiv cov yam khoom ntawm lub laj kab thiab tsuas pub cov khoom seem ntawm cov laj kab kom dhau. Li ntawd, yog tias peb tuaj nqa Polaroid phaj los saib lub teeb ci, nws xav zoo li hnav looj tsom iav dub. Feem ntau, lub teeb yuav tsaus ntuj. Tab sis yog tias ob lub ncov khoom polarizing stacked ua ke, nws yog qhov sib txawv. Thaum koj tig lub kaum sab nraud ntawm ob lub thawv rau ntawm lub thawv polarizing, qhov ci ci ntawm lub teeb yuav tau txais ib tsos tsaus tsawv thiab ib tsos tsaus tsawv nrog lub kaum sab xis. Thaum cov ces kaum ntawm ob lub phaj yog sib dhos rau ib leeg, qhov kaj tsis tuaj yeem ua tiav. Daim duab 8) thiab cov kua siv lead ua kua yog ua tiav qhov no. Siv ob sab thiab qis dua ob sab laj mus rau ib qho, tag nrho cov kua siv ua kua, thiab siv cov hluav taws xob los tswj cov kua siv ua kua hloov kom hloov pauv ntawm lub teeb. Nyob rau hauv no txoj kev, txawv fais fab teb loj yuav tsim sib txawv gray scale ci ntsa iab. (saib hauv daim duab 9)

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Ob khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg ntawm cov iav yog siv los tuav cov kua siv lead ua kua. Hauv qab ntawm iav yog nyias zaj duab xis transistor (TFT), thiab saum lub khob yog xim xim (xim xim). Yog tias koj pom (saib Daim Duab 3), ob lub tsom iav tsis txuam rau sab ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua. Muaj ib qho zom zaws. Lub hom phiaj tseem ceeb ntawm qhov zawj no yog xav kom ntev pas nrig xws li kua siv lead ua kua molecules teem rau ntawm cov zawj. Nyob rau hauv no txoj kev, lub arrangement ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yuav zoo haum, vim hais tias yog nws yog tus du, lub arrangement ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules yuav tsis raug cai, ua rau lub teeb tawg tawg thiab ua ib qho leaky phenomenon. Qhov tseeb qhov no tsuas yog theoretical. Nws qhia rau peb hais tias peb yuav tsum tau nrog lub qhov chaw ntom ntom ntawm cov iav thiab cov kua siv lead ua kom qhov txheej txheem ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua yog nyob rau hauv ib qho kev txiav txim. Tab sis nyob rau hauv lub tiag tiag tsim txheej txheem, lub khob tsis tau ua kom muaj xws li ib tug trough zoo li tis. Lub txheej ntawm PI (polyimide) feem ntau coated rau ntawm lub iav, thiab tom qab ntawd ces daim ntaub siv los ua qhov muab tshuaj txhuam. Kev txiav txim, kom lub plhaub ntawm cov PI yuav tsis muaj kev sib faib khoom tawm, yuav tsum tau teem caij thiab tsis muaj teeb meem, thiab txheej txheem PI no hu ua daim ntawv membrane, thiab nws cov kev ua haujlwm zoo li lub grooves hauv iav hauv daim duab 3 , muab ib qho kev sib kho ntawm cov xwm txheej rau cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules kom npaj cov kua siv lead ua hauv ib qho kev txiav txim siab ua ntej.
TN (Twisted Nematic) LCD
Raws li peb pom los ntawm daim duab 10, thaum tsis muaj qhov hluav taws xob nruab nrab ntawm sab qaum thiab tsawg dua ob daim iav, qhov kev hloov ntawm cov dej siv ua kua yuav nyob ntawm seb qhov yeeb yaj duab sib npaug ntawm ob sab thiab sab ob tsom iav. Rau TN hom kua siv lead ua, qhov txawv ntawm qhov nruab nrab thiab hauv qab yog 90 degree. (saib daim duab 9) yog li cov kab ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua pib tau tig 90 degrees los rau sab saum toj mus rau nram qab, thaum muaj teeb meem tshwm sim. Thaum lub teeb kis tau los ntawm cov saum toj rooj polarizing phaj, tsuas yog ib lub qhov sib txawv ntawm lub npoo polarized sab laug. Thaum cov kua siv lead ua kua molecule tig 90 degrees los ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules, qhov kev coj ntawm lub teeb ntawm lub teeb coj mus rau 90 degree thaum lub teeb yoj ncav mus rau sab qaum ncov qaum. Thiab lub kaum sab xis ntawm qis txheej thiab lub phom sab sauv polarizing yog raws nraim 90 degrees. (saib daim duab 9. Li ntawd, lub teeb tuaj yeem dhau mus zoo, tab sis yog peb siv qhov sib npaug ntawm ob sab thiab qis ob daim iav, vim TN hom kua siv lead ua feem ntau muaj cov dej ua kua zoo (epsilon / />>), lub dielectric Kev sib txig sib luag hauv qhov kev taw qhia tseem ceeb tshaj qhov uas nyob hauv txoj kev taw qhia, yog li thaum cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules raug cuam tshuam los ntawm cov hluav taws xob, qhov kev npaj yuav raug coj mus ua ke. Peb pom tau hauv daim duab 10, cov txheej txheem ntawm cov kua qaub tsim kua tshuaj yuav sawv ntsug ntawm lub sijhawm no. Lub sijhawm no, lub teeb taws polarized tsis tau los ntawm txoj kev taw qhia ntawm sab qaum lub thauv polarizing yuav tsis pauv txoj kev sib pauv thaum lub kua siv lead ua kua molecules los ntawm kua siv lead ua molecules, yog li nws yog tsis yooj yim sua kom dhau los ntawm qis polarizing phaj.
Nquag dawb thiab feem ntau dub
NW (Nquag dawb) txhais tau hais tias thaum peb tsis siv qhov hluav taws xob rau lub LCD vaj huam sib luag, lub vaj huam sib luag peb pom yog lub teeb duab xa duab, uas yog, daim duab kaj lug, yog li nws yog hu ua cov neeg dawb. thiab qhov rov qab, thaum peb tsis siv qhov hluav taws xob rau lub LCD vaj huam sib luag, yog tias lub vaj huam sib luag tsis zoo thiab zoo li dub, nws yog hu ua N. B (Feem ntau cov dub). Cov duab 9 thiab 10 uas peb nyuam qhuav tau hais yuav tsum yog tus qauv ntawm NW. Tsis tas li ntawd, ntawm daim duab 11 peb pom tau tias TN hom LCD, qhov kev taw qhia ntawm lub iav thiab qis dua yog sib tshooj rau ib leeg, thaum sib txawv ntawm NB thiab NW tsuas yog qhov chaw ntawm lub thawv polarizing xwb. Rau NB, lub polarity ntawm lub siab thiab qis polarizers. Nws yog parallel rau txhua lwm yam. Yog li thaum lub NB tsis siv lub qhov taw hluav taws xob, lub teeb yuav tsis txhais lub teeb vim yog 90 degree ntawm kev sib tw ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua. Vim li cas thiaj muaj ob hom polarising phaj configurations ntawm NW thiab NB? Feem ntau rau tej qhov chaw sib txawv. Daim ntawv sau npe ntawm lub computer duab lossis hom cwj mem lub computer yog feem ntau qhov teeb tsa ntawm NW. Yog vim li ntawd, yog tias koj pom tias siv cov computer software, koj yuav pom tias qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam tag nrho yog qhov chaw kaj lug, uas yog, computer software yog feem ntau lo lus dawb xim dub. Txij li thaum lub taw tes ci ntsa iab feem ntau, nws yooj yim dua siv NW. Kuj vim hais tias qhov kaj ci ntsa iab ntawm NW tsis tas yuav ntxiv zog, thiab qhov nruab nrab yuav tau txuag hluav taws xob. Nws hais tias daim ntawv thov ntawm NB feem ntau yog rau daim ntawv thov dub npo.

STN (Super Twisted Nematic) hom LCD
STN LCD thiab TN hom LCD zoo heev nyob rau hauv cov qauv, thiab qhov sib txawv loj yog TN hom LCD. Qhov kev hloov ntawm cov kua tshuaj lead ua kua molecules yog 90 degrees los ntawm qis mus rau hauv qab. Thiab cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules ntawm STN LCD yog teem rau kev sib hloov ntawm ntau tshaj 180 degrees, feem ntau 270 degrees. (saib Daim Duab 12) vim tias lub kaum sab xis ntawm nws txoj kev sib hloov yog txawv, nws qhov tshwj xeeb Nws tsis zoo li qub. Peb paub los ntawm qhov kev taw qhia qhov hluav taws xob ntawm TN thiab STN LCD hauv Daim duab 13 tias thaum qhov hluav taws xob tsawg tsawg, qhov nkag mus ntawm qhov kaj yog qhov siab heev. Thaum qhov hluav taws xob qis heev, qhov sib nkag ntawm qhov kaj yog qhov tsawg heev. Yog li ntawd, lawv yog cov qauv phom polarizing ntawm Dawb Dawb. Thaum tus voltage yog nyob hauv nruab nrab txoj hauj lwm, TN LCD hloov. Lub nkhaus no kuj qeeb, thaum hloov qhov hloov ntawm STN hom steeper. Yog li ntawd, nyob rau hauv TN yam LCD, thaum qhov nkag mus rau ntawm 90% mus rau 10%, qhov sib npaug ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov sib txawv yog qhov loj dua li ntawm STN hom LCD. Nws ua rau lub TN hom LCD, thiab qhov hloov ntawm nws cov nplai grey ntau dua li ntawm STN hom LCD. Li ntawd, tus TN hom LCD feem ntau yog qhov hloov ntawm 6 ~ 8 khoom, uas yog qhov hloov ntawm 64 ~ 256 grey scale. Thiab lub LCD ntawm hom STN tsuas yog 16 qhov kev txiav txim ntawm qhov ntsuas grey. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv lub sij hawm (lub sij hawm teb) ntawm STN hom LCD muaj ntau lub sij hawm tshwm sim dua 100ms thiab TN hom LCD muaj ntau lub sij hawm tshwm sim dua 30 ~ 50ms. Thaum cov duab ntawm cov duab hloov sai, nws yooj yim kom muaj qhov seem phenomenon rau STN hom LCD.

TFT LCD (nyias zaj duab xis transistor kua siv lead ua kua)
Cov neeg txhais lus suav ntawm TFT LCD yog hu ua thin film transistor kua siv lead ua kua. Los ntawm thaum pib, peb tau hais tias cov kua siv lead ua kua roj ntsha yuav tsum tau tswj hwm qhov hluav taws xob los tsim cov nplai grey. Thiab cov duab ntawm lub qhov hluav taws xob los ntawm cov yeeb yaj kiab nyias transistors kom tswj cov kua siv lead ua kua yog hu ua TFT LCD. los ntawm ntu 8, ntawm sab saum toj thiab hauv qab ob txheej txheej iav, Nrog cov kua siv lead ua kua, nws yuav tsim ib daim phaj ntawm lub plhaub, uas peb hu ua CLC (capacitor of crystal liquid). Nws yog hais txog 0.1pF, tab sis nyob rau hauv daim ntawv thov, tus capacitor tsis tuaj yeem ceev cov hluav taws xob mus rau lwm qhov hloov tshiab ntawm cov duab cov ntaub ntawv. Ntawd yog, thaum TFT them lub capacitor, nws tsis tuaj yeem ua rau qhov tsis muaj zog. Ua kom txog thaum tom ntej TFT rov qab ua dua li no. (txhawm rau hloov qhov zaus ntawm 60Hz xwb, koj yuav tsum khaws 16 xuab moos.) ces qhov hloov ntawm qhov hloov voltage, cov duab ntawm gray teev yuav tsis yog. Yog li, feem ntau, tus tsim ntawm lub vaj huam sib luag yuav ntxiv lwm CS cia peev (lub capacitor cia li 0.5pF), yog li ntawd nws tuaj yeem siv rau qhov tsim ntawm lub vaj huam sib luag. Tus nqi hluav taws xob yuav muab khaws cia mus rau qhov hloov tshiab tom ntej. Tab sis yog lawm, lub TFT nws tus kheej, uas yog nyob rau hauv iav, yog ib qho pib hloov nrog ib tug transistor. Nws txoj hauj lwm tseem ceeb yog los txiav txim seb qhov teeb meem ntawm qhov chaw khiav dej num LCD yuav tsum tau them rau qhov no. Grey scales zoo li cas yog pom los ntawm tus tsav tsheb sab nraud.


Xim lim (xim lim, CF)


Yog tias koj muaj sij hawm siv lub khob nplaum thiab ze rau cov kua siv ua kua dej, koj yuav pom tau tias raws li hauv daim duab 9. Peb paub liab, xiav, thiab ntsuab, qhov sib txawv peb lub ntsiab xim. Uas yog hais, siv cov xim peb, koj tuaj yeem ua ntau yam xim. Ntau cov lus qhia ncaj qha siv txoj cai no los qhia nws. Qhia cov xim. Peb faib peb xim ntawm RGB rau hauv peb cov ntsiab lus cais, nyias muaj nyias qhov hloov xim grey, thiab tom qab ntawd muab qhov uas nyob ib sab peb RGB cov ntsiab lus raws li lub hauv paus ntawm cov khoom, uas yog, pixel., Pixel, muaj peev xim txawv. Ces rau 1024 * 768, yuav tsum muaj ib qho kev daws teeb meem. Lub vijtsam tso tawm, yog ntev li peb ua cov lus muaj pes tsawg ntawm lub tso rau sab nrauv nrog 1024 * 768 pixel, tuaj yeem tso tau cov duab no. Hauv daim duab 9, qhov dub ntawm txhua qhov RGB point hu ua Black matrix. thiab peb rov qab saib mus rau daim duab 8, thiab qhov dub matrix tsuas yog siv los npog qhov uas tsis npaj kom pom teeb ci. Piv txwv li, nws zoo li ITO tus kab, los yog Cr / Al's taug kev kab, los yog ib feem ntawm TFT. Yog vim li cas hauv daim duab 9, txhua qhov chaw RGB zoo li nws tsis yog duab plaub, thiab muaj ib feem ntawm cov duab matrix uas thaiv cov lus nyob rau sab qaum teb sab qaum, thiab qhov no ntawm cov ces kaum dub yog qhov chaw ntawm TFT.


Daim duab 10 yog ib qho qauv ntawm cov xim lim. Stripe feem ntau siv cov khoom OA, uas yog, peb hom phau ntawv sau, los sis cov duab hauv computer, thiab lwm yam. Yog vim li cas daim ntawv thov no muaj nyob rau hauv ib qho bar? Yog vim li cas yog tias software tam sim no feem ntau qhov rais - raws li. Uas yog hais tias, Cov ntsiab lus tshuaj peb pom yog ua los ntawm ib pawg loj ntawm squares ntawm ntau thiab tsawg. Lub chaw tshiab tsuas ua rau lub npov ntug, zoo nkaus li ncaj nraim, thiab tsis muaj txoj kab ncaj nraim uas zoo li lub hau plaub hau los yog ib qho kev txhawj xeeb. Tab sis yog tias nws tau thov kom AV cov khoom, nws txawv. Feem ntau ntawm cov cim tsis yog cov kab ncaj nraim, thiab feem ntau ntawm cov qauv muaj cov curves irregular. Li ntawd, thaum pib, AV khoom raug siv hauv mosaic (mosaic, los yog kab pheeb ces kaum). Tab sis qhov tseeb AV cov khoom tau raug kho kom siv cov voos voos voos (voj voos, vib thab plaub, los yog delta). Ntxiv nrog rau qhov kev npaj, muaj kev kho tshiab hu ua square arrangement. Nws tsis yog tib yam li thawj ob peb. Nws tsis siv peb cov ntsiab lus raws li pixel, tab sis ua ke ntawm plaub ntsiab lus raws li ib tug pixel. thiab plaub lub ntsiab lus cia li tsim ib lub xwmfab.
Backlight board (rov qab lub teeb, BL)


Ntawm qhov ntsuas CRT zoo tib yam, nws yog siv cov phom kub ceev uas siv hluav taws xob los tawm tsam lub phosphor ntawm lub vijtsam nyiaj los tsim ib lub teeb rau cov duab. Txawm li cas los xij, nws tus kheej lub LCD, uas tsuas yog tswj tau qhov ci ci ntawm lub teeb uas dhau mus, nws tus kheej tsis muaj luminescence kev ua haujlwm. Yog li, lub LCD yuav tsum ntxiv ib lub rooj teeb nrig rov qab los muab rau nws. Ib lub teeb ci nrog kev ci ntsa iab thiab teeb pom kev zoo sib xws. Peb tuaj yeem pom hauv daim duab 14 tias qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov teeb pom kev hauv lub rooj teeb yog cov teeb (txias cathode hlab), reflectors, lub teeb taw qhia, cov ntawv pov thawj, diffusion daim hlau thiab ntxiv rau. Lub teeb lub raj yog lub luminous qhov loj, thiab lub teeb yog muab faib rau txhua qhov chaw los ntawm lub teeb qhia lub phaj, thaum lub reflector koos lub teeb. Tag nrho tsuas yog mus hauv kev coj ntawm TFT LCD. Thaum kawg, nrog kev pab ntawm daim ntawv ntom ntom thiab lub rooj sib tawm, lub teeb raug muab faib rau txhua thaj chaw thiab muab lub teeb ci ci rau TFT LCD. Thiab TFT LCD tswj qhov kev sib hloov ntawm cov kua siv lead ua los ntawm qhov hluav taws xob thiab tswj cov kev ci ci ntawm lub teeb tsim cov qauv grey sib txawv.


Lub koobtshoov kua nplaum (Sealant) thiab lub kav hlau
Nyob rau hauv daim duab 14, kuj muaj ob yam khoom ntawm cov kua nplaum thiab lub raj. Lub hom phiaj ntawm cov kua nplaum mas yog cia lub hau thiab qis ob txheej ntawm cov iav hauv cov kua siv ua kua ua kua ua kom nruj thiab khov ntawm cov kua siv lead ua kua molecules hauv vaj huam sib luag. Yog li tus ncej kua nplaum, ua nws lub npe, nyob ib ncig ntawm lub vaj huam sib luag, thiab cov kua siv lead ua kua molecular ncej txwv rau cov vaj huam sib luag. Thiab SP Acer tsuas yog muab kev txhawb nqa rau li thiab nce ob txheej ntawm iav. Nws yuav tsum sib npaug ntawm cov iav substrates.


Qhib npaum li cas (Qhov nruab nrab)
Ib qho tseem ceeb tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv cov kua siv lead ua kua yog qhov ci ntsa iab, thiab qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws hauv kev txiav txim siab txog qhov ci ntsa iab yog qhib cov nqi. Tus nqi qhib yog dab tsi? Tsuas yog qhov sib piv ntawm thaj chaw zoo uas lub teeb tau dhau. Saib daim duab 17. Ntawm sab laug ntawm daim duab 17, lub kua siv lead ua kua yog saib los saum toj los sis qis dua tus qauv ntawm yav dhau los. Thaum lub teeb tawm ntawm lub teeb pom kev, tsis yog tag nrho lub teeb muaj peev xwm dhau los ntawm lub vaj huam sib luag, xws li lub teeb liab rau ntawm qhov chaw khiav dej num hauv lub laub thiab lub rooj vias tsav, thiab lub TFT nws tus kheej, qhov cia ua kom siv tau khaws cia cov twj, on. Nyob rau hauv kev tswj ntawm qhov voltage, qhov tseeb grey nplua tsis tuaj yeem muab tso tawm kom pom, vim li ntawd cov matrix dub siv los npog nws kom tsis txhob cuam tshuam nrog qhov tseeb ntawm qhov chaw ntawm lwm qhov chaw. Yog li cov cheeb tsam zoo hauv cheeb tsam no zoo ib yam li thaj tsam ntawm sab xis ntawm daim duab 17. Txoj kev pom zoo ntawm qhov pom kev zoo no yog hu ua feem ntawm tag nrho cheeb tsam. Nws yog tus nqi qhib.


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Thaum lub teeb tawm ntawm lub teeb ci, nws yuav dhau los ntawm lub ncov qaumteb, iav, kua siv ua kua, xim lim thiab lwm yam. Piv txwv tus nkag mus ntawm txhua feem yog raws li nram no:
Polarizer: 50% (vim hais tias nws tsuas yog ib qho kev coj ntawm lub teeb plias kom dhau dhau).
Iav: 95% (ob daim yuav tsum tau muab xam)
Ua kua dej ua kua: 95%
Qhib npaum li cas: 50% (tsuas yog ib nrab ntawm cov cheeb tsam zoo)
Cov xim xim: 27% (yog hais tias cov khoom siv nws tus kheej muaj qhov sib npaug ntawm 80%, tab sis lub lim nws tus kheej pleev xim rau xim, nws tuaj yeem cia cov xim ntawm lub teeb yoj kom dhau. Rau RGB peb thawj xim, tsuas yog peb leeg xwb tsuas pub tau 1/3 ntawm qhov ci ntsa iab xwb thiaj li tsuas pub dhau 80% * 33% = 27%.).
Nrog rau saum toj no, tsuas yog 6% ntawm lub teeb yuav sab laug ntawm lub rooj teeb lub rooj teeb tsa. Nws kuj yog vim li cas qhov laj thawj rau qhov qhib tus nqi yog yuav raug kho dua nyob rau hauv tus tsim ntawm TFT LCD. Ntev npaum li qhov qhib tau nce, qhov ci yuav ua kom muaj zog thiab qhov ci ntsa iab ntawm cov teeb ci ntsa iav tsis siab li, thiab lub zog siv hluav taws xob thiab nqi yuav raug cawm dim.