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Volumetric zaub ntaub ntawv ib tug sawv cev nrig ntawm ib tug kwv nyob rau hauv peb lub cev ntev

Apr 22, 2017

Volumetric zaub

From Wikipedia, cov dawb encyclopedia

Ib tug volumetric zaub ntaus ntawv yog ib tug duab zaub ntaus ntawv uas tas ib nrig txog kev pom cov sawv cev ntawm ib tug kwv nyob rau hauv peb lub cev ntev , raws li txwv mus rau planar duab ntawm tsoos cov ntxaij vab tshaus uas simulate qhov tob los ntawm ib tug xov tooj ntawm txawv yeeb yam zoo. Ib txhais uas muab los ntawm cov tho kev nyob rau hauv lub teb no yog hais tias volumetric qhia tsim 3D imagery ntawm lub emission, kev tawg ri niab, los yog relaying ntawm illumination ntawm zoo-txhais cheeb tsam nyob rau hauv (x, y, z) qhov chaw. Tab sis yog tsis muaj kev pom zoo ntawm cov kev soj ntsuam nyob rau hauv lub teb, tej zaum nws yuav tsim nyog rau lees holographic thiab mas multiview qhia mus rau lub volumetric zaub tsev neeg yog hais tias lawv ua tau ib tug tsim nyog txoj hauj lwm ntawm projecting ib tug peb-dimensional lub teeb teb nyob rau hauv ib lub ntim.

Feem ntau, yog hais tias tsis tag nrho, volumetric 3D qhia yog tog twg los autostereoscopic los yog automultiscopic ; uas yog, lawv tsim 3D imagery pom mus rau lub ib leeg xwb qhov muag. Nco ntsoov tias ib txhia zaub technologists muaj lub sij hawm "autostereoscopic" rau pav ca-vaj huam sib luag spatially multiplexed parallax qhia, xws li lenticular-daim ntawv qhia. Txawm li cas los, ze li ntawm tag nrho cov 3D qhia lwm tshaj li cov neeg uas yuav tsum tau headwear, xws li lub tso suab yas thiab lub tso suab lub taub hau mounted lus, yog autostereoscopic. Yog li ntawd, ib tug sab heev pab pawg neeg ntawm cov zaub architectures no kom tswv autostereoscopic.

Volumetric 3D qhia embody cia li ib tsev neeg ntawm 3D qhia nyob rau hauv feem ntau. Lwm yam kev 3D qhia yog: stereograms / stereoscopes, saib-tshwm sim los qhia, electro-holographic qhia, parallax "ob view" qhia thiab parallax panoramagrams (uas yog feem ntau spatially multiplexed tshuab xws li lenticular-daim ntawv qhia thiab parallax barrier qhia), rov -imaging systems, thiab lwm tus neeg.

Txawm tias thawj postulated nyob rau hauv 1912, thiab ib tug staple ntawm science ntawv tseeb , volumetric qhia yog tseem nyob rau hauv txoj kev loj hlob, thiab muaj tsis tau mus cuag cov pejxeem. Nrog ib tug ntau yam ntawm lub tswv yim thiab nyob rau hauv kev siv nyob rau hauv me me qhov ntau-feem ntau nyob rau hauv academia thiab ntau yam kev tshawb fawb no-piv-volumetric qhia nyob twj ywm siv tau xwb ua rau nws kawm, corporations, thiab cov tub rog.


txheem

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Hom [ edit ]

Muaj ntau cov me nyuam tau ua los mus tsim volumetric imaging pab kiag li lawm. [1] Nws tsis muaj officially txais " taxonomy " ntawm ntau yam ntawm volumetric qhia, ib qhov teeb meem uas yog nyuab los ntawm ntau cov permutations ntawm lawv cov yam ntxwv. Piv txwv li, illumination nyob rau hauv ib volumetric zaub yuav yog mus txog rau lub qhov muag ncaj qha los ntawm lub qhov chaw los yog ntawm ib nrab nto xws li ib daim iav los yog iav; zoo li no, qhov no nto, uas yuav tsum tau tsis yuav tangible, yuav undergo cov lus tsa suab xws li oscillation los yog kev sib hloov. Ib categorization yog raws li nram no:

Swept-ntim zaub [ edit ]

Swept-nto (los yog "swept-volume") volumetric 3D qhia cia siab rau tus tib neeg persistence ntawm lub zeem muag los txuam rau ib tug series ntawm slices ntawm lub 3D khoom rau hauv ib 3D duab. Ib tug ntau yam ntawm swept-volume qhia tau tsim.

Fast-tsiv LEDs tsim ib 360 degree kwv nyob rau hauv cov huab cua nyob rau hauv no tsab los ntawm University College Sedaya International

Piv txwv li, lub 3D scene yog computationally decomposed rau hauv ib tug series ntawm "slices", uas yuav ua tau rectangular, disc-zoo li tus, los yog helical ntoo khaub lig-sectioned, whereupon lawv npaj mus rau los yog los ntawm ib cov zaub nto niaj tsab ntawv tsa suab. Cov duab rau cov 2D nto (tsim los ntawm projection rau ntawm qhov chaw, LEDs kos nyob rau hauv tus nto, los yog lwm hom kev kawm) hloov raws li qhov chaw tsiv los yog rotates. Vim lub persistence ntawm lub zeem muag tib neeg pom ib tug tas mus ntim ntawm lub teeb. Cov zaub nto yuav ua tau paab, transmissive, los yog ib tug ua ke ntawm ob qho tib si.

Lwm hom 3D zaub uas yog ib tug neeg sib tw tug tswv cuab ntawm lub chav kawm ntawv ntawm swept-volume 3D qhia yog lub varifocal daim iav architecture. Ib qho ntawm thawj ua tim khawv rau qhov no hom ntawm system yog los ntawm 1966, nyob rau hauv uas ib tug vibrating mirrored drumhead qhia ib tug series ntawm cov qauv los ntawm ib tug siab ncej nqi 2D duab tau qhov twg los, xws li ib tug vector zaub, mus rau ib tug coj set ntawm qhov tob chaw.

Zoo li qub volume [ edit ]

Yog li ntawd-hu ua "zoo li qub ntim" volumetric 3D qhia tsim imagery tsis muaj macroscopic mus qhov chaw nyob rau hauv cov duab volume. Nws yog tsis totaub yog hais tias tus so ntawm lub system yuav tsum nyob twj ywm nyob ruaj ruaj rau kev ua tswv cuab nyob rau hauv no cov zaub chav kawm ntawv yuav tsum tau zaum.

Qhov no yog tej zaum cov feem ntau 'ncaj' daim ntawv ntawm volumetric zaub. Nyob rau hauv lub nyuaj cov ntaub ntawv, ib tug addressable volume ntawm qhov chaw yog tsim tawm ntawm active hais tias yog pob tshab nyob rau hauv lub tawm lub xeev tiam sis yog tog twg los opaque los yog luminous nyob rau hauv lub rau lub xeev. Thaum lub ntsiab (hu ua voxels ) tshuab txais, lawv qhia ib tug khoom qauv nyob rau hauv lub qhov chaw ntawm lub zaub.

Ob peb zoo li qub-volume volumetric 3D qhia siv laser lub teeb los txhawb kom pom tawg nyob rau hauv ib tug khoom, kua, los yog roj. Piv txwv li, ib co kev soj ntsuam tau tso siab rau ob peb kauj ruam upconversion nyob rau hauv ib tsawg lub ntiaj teb - doped khoom thaum illuminated los ntawm kev sib tshuam infrared laser beams ntawm qhov kev tsim nyog frequencies. [2] [3]

Tsis ntev los no kev kho tau teem rau uas tsis yog-tangible (free-chaw) implementations ntawm qhov zoo li qub-volume qeb, uas tej zaum yuav nws thiaj li cia ncaj qha kev sis raug zoo nrog cov zaub. Piv txwv li, ib tug pos huab zaub siv ntau projectors kav ib tug 3D duab nyob rau hauv ib tug ntim ntawm qhov chaw, ua rau ib tug zoo li qub-volume volumetric zaub. [4] [5]

Ib tug txheej txheem nyob rau hauv 2006 puas mus nrog cov zaub nruab nrab zoo rau nws, siv ib tug focused pulsed infrared laser (txog 100 pulses ib ob; txhua ntev ib nanosecond ) los tsim khoom ntawm glowing ntshav ntawm lub focal point nyob rau hauv ib txwm tej huab cua. Lub focal point yog qhia los ntawm ob tsiv tsom iav thiab ib tug zawv zawg lens , uas nws kos daim nyob rau hauv cov huab cua. Txhua mem tes tsim ib tug popping suab, li ntawd, tus ntaus ntawv crackles raws li nws sau. Tam sim no nws yuav ua kom muaj dots nyob qhov twg nyob rau hauv ib cubic Meter. Nws yog xav hais tias tus ntaus ntawv yuav tau scaled rau tej me me, uas 3D dluab yuav tsum generated nyob rau hauv lub ntuj. [6] [7]

Tom qab ntawd hloov xws li cov kev siv ntawm ib tug neon / argon / xenon / Helium roj mix xws li ib tug ntshav ntiaj teb thiab ib tug sai roj ub system ua hauj lwm ib tug hood thiab lub tshuab nqus tsev twj yuav cia qhov no technology mus cuag ob tug xim (R / W) thiab tejzaum nws RGB los hloov tus mem tes dav thiab kev siv ntawm txhua mem tes rau qhib cov emission spectra ntawm lub luminous ntshav lub cev.

Tib neeg-computer interfaces [ edit ]

Lub cim thaj chaw ntawm volumetric qhia, uas tej zaum yuav muaj xws li: 360-degree saib, daim ntawv cog lus ntawm sib thiab kev pab cues, thiab lawv xam qhovkev "peb-dimensionality", pab kom tshiab neeg siv interface hom kev kawm . Muaj yog tsis ntev los no ua hauj lwm soj qab qhov ceev thiab raug kev pab cuam ntawm volumetric qhia, [8] tshiab graphical neeg siv interfaces, [9] thiab kev kho mob daim ntaub ntawv kho kom zoo los ntawm volumetric qhia. [10] [11]

Tsis tas li ntawd, software platforms nyob uas xa cov haiv neeg thiab legacy 2D thiab 3D ntsiab lus mus rau volumetric qhia. [12]

Artistic kev siv [ edit ]

Hologlyphics: Artistic siv Volumetric Lus, uas volumetric movies thiab music

Ib artform hu ua Hologlyphics tau tshawb vim 1994, sib txuas ntsiab ntawm holography , suab paj nruag , yees duab synthesis , ua yog toog pom zaj duab xis, duab puab thiab improvisation . Volumetric movies tau pom tias nyob audiences ntawm zaj duab xis festivals, kos duab qhov thiab cov suab paj nruag txheej xwm. Ntau volumetric qhia thiab multi-loudspeaker arrays koos ib cov neeg tuaj saib. Cov movies muaj qhia nyob rau hauv nrog cov suab paj nruag, tog twg los nyob los yog kaw nrog lub volumetric animations.

Tus thawj lub hom phiaj yog mus ua ke holography nrog suab paj nruag, thiab thaum kawg volumetric qhia tau tswm li ib tug artistic nruab nrab. Muaj ntau cov tshuaj zaj duab xis thiab yees duab tshwj xeeb los tau nruj heev heev rau hologlyphic movies, ntxiv ntau ntau tshwj xeeb los cim rau volumetric qhia tau raug tsim. Cov no muaj xws volumetric so los, raster dabtsi yog khoov, morphing, kaleidoscope thiab mirroring los, sim rotations, spatial kev nkhaus los thiab duab sequencing.

Lub Hologlyphic movies kuj yuav ua nyob rau hauv real-time, zoo li ib tug video synthesizer , tswj los ntawm cov suab paj nruas twj remote controls, tsab ntawv tsa suab sensors, tswj panels, thiab acoustic seev. Cov duab tiam system yog feem ntau digital, tab sis ib txhia ntawm thawj daim duab generators thiab processors twb analog thiab nyob twj ywm nyob rau hauv kev siv.

Drawbacks [ edit ]

Paub volumetric zaub technologies kuj muaj ob peb drawbacks uas tshaaj nyob ntawm trade-offs xaiv los ntawm lub system designer.

Nws yog feem ntau thov hais tias volumetric qhia yog incapable ntawm reconstructing scenes nrog tuav-txoj hauj lwm-nyob los, xws li occlusion thiab opacity. Qhov no yog ib misconception; ib tug zaub uas nws voxels muaj uas tsis yog-isotropic tawg profiles yog tseeb tau piav txoj hauj lwm-nyob los. Rau-hnub, occlusion-muaj peev volumetric qhia yuav tsum tau ob tug mob: (1) lub imagery yog nws thiab npaj raws li ib tug series ntawm "views," es tsis "slices," thiab (2) lub sij hawm-ua duab nto yog tsis yog ib tug niaj hnub diffuser. Piv txwv li, soj ntsuam tau pom spinning-screen volumetric qhia nrog kev thiab / los mas diffuse cov ntxaij vab tshaus uas nws imagery exhibits occlusion thiab opacity. Ib tug system [13] [14] tsim HPO 3D imagery nrog ib tug 360-degree teb pom los ntawm oblique projection mus rau ib ntsug diffuser; lwm [15] tej yaam num 24 views mus rau ib yam tshuaj-diffusion nto; thiab lwm [16] muaj 12-saib dluab siv ib tug mas taw qhia kom paub louver.

Yog li ntawd, nyob deb, cov muaj peev xwm los sis scenes nrog occlusion thiab lwm yam txoj hauj lwm-nyob los tau rau ntawm cov nuj nqis ntawm ntsug parallax, nyob rau hauv uas lub 3D scene zoo nkaus li distorted yog saib los ntawm qhov chaw uas tsis yog cov neeg hauv lub scene twb generated rau.

Ib lwm saib xyuas yog cov heev loj npaum li cas ntawm bandwidth yuav tsum tau pub imagery mus rau ib tug volumetric zaub. Piv txwv li, ib tug txheej txheem 24 khoom ib pixel , 1024 × 768 daws teeb meem, tiaj / 2D zaub yuav tsum tau hais txog 135 MB / s yuav tsum tau xa mus rau cov zaub hardware mus ntxiv 60 ntas ib ob, whereas ib tug 24 khoom ib voxel , 1024 × 768 × 1024 (1024 "pixel khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg" nyob rau hauv lub Z axis) volumetric zaub yuav tsum tau xa txog peb kev txiav txim ntawm qhov ntau ntau (135 GB / s ) rau cov zaub hardware mus ntxiv 60 tagnrho ib ob. Raws li muaj tsis tu ncua 2D video, ib tug yuav txo tau cov bandwidth yuav tsum tau los ntawm tsuas yog xa tsawg tagnrho ib ob thiab cia cov zaub hardware rov ntas nyob rau hauv lub nruab nrab, los yog los ntawm kev xa tsuas txaus cov ntaub ntawv muaj kev cuam tshuam cov cheeb tsam ntawm cov zaub uas yuav tsum tau kho tshiab, raws li yog cov ntaub ntawv nyob rau hauv niaj hnub lossy-compression video tawm tswv yim xws li MPEG . Tsis tas li ntawd, ib tug 3D volumetric zaub yuav tsum muaj ob leeg los peb kev txiav txim ntawm qhov ntau ntau CPU thiab / los yog GPU hwj chim tshaj uas tsim nyog rau 2D imagery ntawm sib npaug zoo, vim tsawg kawg yog nyob rau hauv ib feem mus rau lub sheer nqi ntawm cov ntaub ntawv uas yuav tsum tau tsim thiab xa mus rau lub zaub kho vajtse. Txawm li cas los, yog hais tias tsuas sab nto ntawm qhov ntim yog pom, tus xov tooj ntawm voxels yuav tsum tau yuav tsum tau ntawm qhov kev txiav txim raws li tus xov tooj ntawm pixels rau ib tug pa zaub. Qhov no yuav tsuas yuav cov ntaub ntawv yog hais tias tus voxels tsis muaj "alpha" los yog transparency qhov tseem ceeb.

Kev ua lag luam [ edit ]

Tam sim no muaj ib tug puv tes ntawm tuam txhab uas muag muab kev koom tes nyob rau hauv txoj kev loj hlob ntawm 3D volumetric zaub technologies. Cov nram qab no tuam txhab uas muag muaj volumetric zaub technology uas tau raug tshaaj laj mej pej xeem thiab yog muaj kev muag khoom:

Qhov no yog ib daim ntawv teev nrog rau tag nrho cov tuam txhab uas muaj experimented nrog ib co daim ntawv ntawm volumetric zaub technology: