Tsev > Xov xwm > Ntsiab lus

Evolution ntawm Photoresist

Mar 15, 2018

Cov kev lag luam nyob rau hauv kev lag luam, raws li cov lag luam xav tau los ntawm kev siv lub tshuab thiab cov khoom siv sib txawv ntawm cov khoom nruab nrab, nco ntsoov nce cov kev txiav txim siab los ntawm kev sib kis tau tus kabmob no, thiaj li ua kom muaj ntau qhov kev sib txuas. Nrog txoj kev txhim kho ntawm IC kev sib tos, cov txheej txheem theem ntawm lub ntiaj teb kev sib cog lus tau nkag mus rau hauv nanoscale theem ntawm micrometer, submicron, tob submicron theem.


Yuav kom ua tau raws li txoj cai ntawm kev sib txuas ntawm txoj kab sib txuas ntawm txoj kab sib txuas ntawm kev sib tshuam kev sib txuas ntawm txoj hlua, UV photoresist los ntawm dav spectrum mus rau G kab (436nm), kuv (365nm), KrF (248nm), ArF (193nm), F2 (157nm) ntawm huab ultraviolet lub teeb nyob rau hauv cov kev coj ntawm EUV, thiab kev daws teeb meem siv tshuab thiab tas li txhim kho photoresist theem ntawm kev daws teeb meem.


Tam sim no, photoresist lub ntsiab siv hauv cov lag luam semiconductor muaj plaub hom photoresist, xws li cov kab G, kuv kab, KrF thiab ArF. G thiab kuv cov kab photoresist yog qhov feem ntau siv photoresist hauv kev ua lag luam.

 

  

Nws muaj kev sib raug zoo ntawm cov seem ntawm qhov kev raug mob:

R yog qhov tsawg kawg nkaus qhov loj me me, uas yog, yam tsawg kawg nkaus uas yuav daws tau. K 1 yog ib qho tsis tu ncua, thiab nws tseem hu ua Rayleigh qhov. Lambda yog lub wavelength ntawm cov teeb pom kev, thiab NA yog qhov qhia txog qhov lens ntawm cov lens. Yog li no, peb pom tau hais tias txoj kev ntxiv kom txo tau qis qis tshaj plaws yog txo lub wavelength ntawm lub teeb ci thiab kom nce tus nqi ntawm lub NAJ.

  

Kev loj hlob ntawm kev sib npaug sib npaug nrog rau lub qhov ntev ntawm kev raug mob ntawm lub tshuab lithography txoj kev siv lub tshuab, siv qhov pwg ntawm UV mus rau DUV, lub teeb ntawm lub siab kub mercury rau lub laser excimer. Qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ultra violet EUV photoresist ua tswvcuab los ntawm ASML, siv lub yaj kauj vapor ntawm cov ntshav raws li lub hauv paus ntawm lub teeb qhov chaw, txo lub wavelength mus rau 13.5nm. Tab sis tag nrho cov duab photolithography yuav tsum tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv qhov chaw xau, thiab qhov ceev ceev yog tsawg.


  

Qhov kev nrhiav kev pom zoo dua qub los ua rau tib neeg xav ua rau tib neeg xav txog ob hom kev tsis pom kev ntawm X - Rays thiab electron beams. Electron tawg yog lub tshuab lithography tam sim no yog ib qho kev paub tab uas siv los tsim cov npog ntsej muag thiab lub tshuab npog loj.


Txoj kev no txawv qhov ntawm cov qauv siv lithography lithography. Nws tuaj yeem sau tau ncaj qha los ntawm hluav taws xob hauv tshuab hluav taws xob thiab kev siv computer, thiab nws muaj peev xwm ua tau 0.25? M daws teeb meem tam sim no. Tab sis txoj kev no yog qhov qeeb qeeb thiab yuav tsum tau ua tiav hauv lub tshuab nqus tsev.


X ray wavelength ntawm tsuas yog 4-50 ib, yog ib qho chaw zoo nkauj, tab sis cov X rays tuaj yeem txav ntau daim npog ntsej muag thiab X X-ray photoresist txoj kev nyuaj vim nws tsis siv.


Tab sis lub NA, tib neeg kuj tuaj nrog cov qauv ntawm kev siv tshuab lithography, qhov nruab nrab nruab nrab ntawm lub lens thiab photoresist yog hloov los ntawm lwm yam tshuaj uas tsis yog huab cua thiab ua kom nrov qhov qhia tawm ntawm NA, ua rau kev daws teeb meem tsis hloov hloov qhov chaw ntawm lub L. 193nm siv tshuab tau raws li kev cai ntawm kev tsim ntawm 45nm, tiam sis txoj kev ntawm 28nm tuaj yeem hu los ntawm kev siv tshuab hauv immersion.


Kev sib xyaw ua ke ntawm kev sib tw thiab kev sib xyaw ua ke tuaj yeem txo qhov kev ntawm 193nm lithography rau 22nm qib, thiab cov kev txwv ntawm cov txheej txheem ntawm ncav cuag 10nm, uas ua rau 193nm lithography tseem dav siv nyob rau hauv kev ua lag luam.

 

  

Daim ntawv thov ntawm photoresist tau ua kom pace nrog txoj kev loj hlob ntawm lub tshuab photolithography. Nrog rau lub teeb raug lithography lub nruam upgrading ntawm photoresist los ntawm ultraviolet tsis zoo photoresist, cyclized roj hmab tsis zoo kua nplaum los hloov UV zoo photoresist, DNQ-Novolac zoo, thiab ces tus nqus UV photoresist, sib phim siab photoresist (TSHEB).


(1) UV tsis zoo photoresist

   Nyob rau xyoo 1954, EastMan-Kodak tau tsim thawj cov duab ci ntsa iab, polyvinyl cinninon cinnamate, thiab pib ua cov cinnamine polyvinyl cinnamate thiab nws txoj kev photoresist system, uas yog thawj photoresist siv hauv kev lag luam hauv electronics. Nyob rau hauv 1958, lub tuam txhab Kodak kuj tsim tau ib txoj kab roj hmab cyclic - diazide photoresist.

Vim tias cov tshuaj nplaum no tau ua zoo ntawm silicon wafer, thiab muaj qhov zoo ntawm cov duab ceev ceev thiab muaj zog tiv thaiv tsis tau ntub dej, nws ua lub ntsiab ntawm cov hluav taws xob hauv kev lag luam hauv 1980s, accounting rau 90% ntawm tag nrho cov kev noj haus thaum ntawd.

Txawm li cas los, vim nws txoj kev loj hlob nrog cov organic solvents, zaj duab xis yuav nthuav thaum tsim, uas txwv qhov daws qhov tsis zoo kua nplaum, yog li nws tsuas yog siv rau lub lag luam ntawm discrete pab kiag li lawm thiab 5, m, 2 ~ 3 m integrated circuits. Tab sis, nrog rau kev txhim kho ntawm cov theem kev sib txuas, kev siv cov kua nplaum nyob hauv kev sib cog ua ke tau maj mam hloov los ntawm qhov zoo, tiam sis tseem muaj ntau daim ntawv sau npe ntawm cov khoom sib cais.


(2) UV zoo photoresist

Phenolic resin - nyob ib ncig ntawm 1950 tsim ib lub diazonaphthoquinone zoo photoresist nrog alkaline tsim tawm, tsis muaj cov teeb meem ntawm cov teeb meem o thaum tsim, yog li qhov kev daws teeb meem dua, thiab tsis kam ua rau lub qhov dej qhuav muaj zog, yog li nws muaj peev xwm ua tau raws li kev sib sau ua qhov loj loj hauv kev loj hlob thiab loj scale kev Circuit Court. UV zoo photoresist raug mob raws li qhov sib txawv, muab faib rau broad spectrum UV zoo photoresist (2-3 m, 0.8-1.2 m), G (0.5-0.6 m) txoj kab, Kuv kab (0.35-0.5 m) zoo , feem ntau yog siv kev sib cog ua ke thiab LCD tsim.

Kuv siv tshuab tau hloov qhov chaw ntawm G kab photoresist nyob rau hauv nruab nrab ntawm 90s, thiab yog qhov feem ntau siv tshuab photoresist tam sim no. Nrog rau kev txhim kho ntawm kuv cov duab photoetching, Kuv kab kuj tseem ua tau zoo linewidth ntawm kev nruab nrab ntawm kev sib cog lus 0.25um, ntev lub neej kev pab ntawm kuv kab. Hauv ib hom khoom siv, cov 1/3 txheej yog txheej tseem ceeb txheej, qhov 1/3 txheej yog qhov tseem ceeb txheej, thiab qhov 1/3 yog ib qho tseem ceeb heev txheej txheem. Muaj kev sib txuam ua qauv photolithography uas sib dhos hauv lub xeev tseem ceeb ntawm photoresist thiab ntaus cov tshuab nrog cov txheej txheem silicon. Piv txwv li, 0.22um DRAM li, Kuv kab stepper ua tau rau ib qho tseem ceeb txheej ntaus rau tag nrho 20 txheej txheej 13 txheej qauv, ntxiv 7 txheej ntawm sib sib zog nqus UV cov kauj ruam mus rau hauv ntej kab scanner imaging, thiab kev siv kuv yuav txo qhov cov nqi ntau lawm, yog li kuv photoresist yuav ntev ntev rau lub sij hawm kom nyob tau ib qho chaw sib koom ua lag luam.


(3) sib sib zog nqus UV photoresist tob UV photoresist

Tsis zoo li UV photoresists, sib sib zog nqus UV photoresists yog sib zog ua kom photoresist (TSHEB). Lub tsheb nta: ntxiv rau photoacid hauv photoresist, nyob rau hauv lub tshuab hluav taws xob, nyob rau hauv cov hluav taws xob, cov kua qaub hauv acid, ci, cov kua qaub, catalytic zaj duab xis ua (yas), kev tshem tawm ntawm cov pawg lossis cov khoom sib cav sib ceg ntawm cov kab sib dhos (crosslinking) );

Ntxiv mus, tom qab tshem tawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv thiab kev sib tiv thaiv kev sib txuas, cov kua qaub tau raug tso tawm dua, tsis noj, thiab nws tseem muaj peev xwm mus ua si lub luag haujlwm, ua kom txo tau lub zog uas yuav tsum tau txhaj, thiab ua kom zoo tshaj qhov phom tsoob.

Txoj kev tshawb ntawm 248nm photoresist nrog KrF excimer laser raws li cov raug qhov chaw pib los ntawm 1990 thiab nkag mus rau theem paub tab nyob rau nruab nrab thiab lig 1990s. Tus neeg sawv cev siv kev yees duab ntau tshaj plaws hauv CAR yog lub Weng ntsev los yog tus neeg sawv cev rau cov neeg tsis muaj kev thaij duab, uas ua tau sulfonic acid, thiab lub cev muaj zog polymer yog esterified poly (hydroxystyrene).

248nm photoresist muaj nrog KrF excimer laser linewidth ntawm 0.25 m, thiab kev tsim ntawm 256M DRAM thiab lwm yam logic Circuit Court, los ntawm kev ua lub tshuab raug NA thiab khoos phis technology zoo dua, uas tau ntse ua ntawv thov rau lub linewidth ntawm 0.18 ~ 0.15 m, 1G DRAM thiab lwm yam khoom siv. Nrog theem hloov daim npog ntsej muag, tawm ntawm txoj kab-xaj thiab kho kom haum, 248nm photoresist tuaj yeem tsim graphics tsawg dua 0.1 M thiab nkag 90nm node.   

Cov kev tshwm sim no qhia tias 248nm photoresist tshuab tau nkag mus rau lub sijhawm paub tab.

ArF 193nm far ultraviolet sib haum ntawm phaj nyaj ntawm photoacid thiab 248nm far ultraviolet photoresist yog roughly tib yam, tab sis nyob rau hauv lub cev ua hauj lwm polymer vim 248nm ultraviolet photoresist nrog film-forming cob uas muaj benzene, muaj zog nqus ntawm 193nm thiab tsis tau siv nyob rau hauv lub tob ultraviolet 193nm photoresist.

193nm photoresist resin demand yog pob tshab ntawm lub wavelength ntawm 193nm, thiab muaj zoo adhesion nrog rau cov substrate, iav hloov kub yog siab dua (Cov kev cai ntawm 130-170 C), sib txuas photoresist kev sib tw yuav tsum muaj cov kua qaub ncaug rau cov pab pawg, kom txhim kho kev muaj peev xwm. Feem ntau siv 193nm photoresist cov khoom yuav muab faib ua acrylate, fused ring olefin ntxiv, cyclic olefin maleic anhydride copolymer, silicone muaj copolymer, ntau lub tshuab copolymerization, thiab cov khoom me me molecular.

Tam sim no, 193nm yog lub ntsiab tov rau lub lag luam, thiab nws yog qhov tseem kho siab tshaj plaws ua ntej EUV lag luam.


(4) lub tiam tom ntej ntawm EUV photoresist

Kev sib tham txog kev ua lag luam ntawm EUV yuav tsum kom haum nws cov photoresist tshwj xeeb, thiab cov cuab yeej ntawm EUV photolithography kuj tau ua ib qho kev xav tau heev rau EUV photoresist. Phom sij plav hauv siab yuav tsum tsis tshua muaj lub teeb nyob rau hauv lub cev, siab tuaj, siab tsis sib haum, siab tshaj (tsawg dua 22nm), siab tshaj, tsawg tshaj 2 10mJ / cm), siab thaj tsam ruaj khov, tsis muaj roj thiab qis kab ntug kev tshaj li 1.5nm).

Vim tias qhov kev siv tshuab no tsuas yog siv 13.4nm lub teeb pom kev zoo, nws yuav tsum tau hais tias cov ntsiab lus siab (xws li F) yuav tsum tau qis dua hauv cov ntaub ntawv tseem ceeb, thiab qhov sib piv ntawm C / H tseem yuav tau nce, uas yuav pab txo qhov nqus ntawm cov ntaub ntawv ntawm 13.5nm. Kev ntsuam xyuas ntawm cov kev kawm ntawm photoresist hais hauv Beijing kev tshawb nrhiav science molecular science thiab CAS chemistry qhia tau hais tias muaj ntau yam 3 hom photoresist systems siv hauv EUV lithography, uas yog qhia hauv cov ntawv nyeem.