Tsev > Xov xwm > Ntsiab lus

Lub Introduction ntawm Polarizer

May 06, 2017

Ib tug polarizer los yog polariser yog ib tug optical lim uas cia lub teeb tsis ntawm ib lub polarization pass thiab blocks teeb tsis ntawm lwm yam polarizations. Nws muaj peev xwm hloov ib tug nqaj ntawm lub teeb ntawm undefined los yog mixed polarization rau hauv ib lub beam ntawm zoo-txhais polarization, uas yog polarized teeb . Lub hom ntawm polarizers yog linear polarizers thiab yeej polarizers . Polarizers yog siv nyob rau hauv ntau kho qhov muag hom kev kawm thiab seev , thiab polarizing lim nrhiav ntaub ntawv sau npe nyob rau hauv photography thiab kua siv lead ua zaub technology. Polarizers kuj yuav ua rau lwm hom ntawm electromagnetic vuag dua li lub teeb, xws li xov tooj cua tsis , microwaves , thiab X-rays .

Tawm polarizers yuav tau muab faib ua ob general pawg: absorptive polarizers, qhov twg hauv pliaj polarization xeev absorbed los ntawm lub ntaus ntawv, thiab beam-splitting polarizers, qhov twg unpolarized beam yog phua rau hauv ob kab teeb nrog opposite polarization lub xeev. Polarizers uas muaj tib lub axes ntawm polarization uas ua cov ces kaum ntawm cov xwm txheej muaj feem ntau hu ua Cartesian polarizers, txij thaum lub polarization vectors yuav tau piav nrog tej yam yooj yim Cartesian coordinates (piv txwv li, kab rov tav thiab ntsug) ywj siab los ntawm cov orientation ntawm lub polarizer nto. Atellevannes teb ceeb хакas dhxwm ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb? Teb ceeb Qhov kev sib txawv ntawm Cartesian thiab sp polarization tuaj yeem negligible feem ntau, tab sis nws ua qhov tseem ceeb rau kev sib txawv siab zoo thiab nrog ntau qhov tshaj plaws ntawm qhov teeb meem lub teeb.

Tej yam muaju , vim cov teebmeem piav los ntawm crystal optics , qhia dichroism , preferential haum ntawm lub teeb uas yog polarized nyob rau hauv particular cov lus qhia. Lawv tuaj yeem raug siv los ua linear polarizers. Qhov zoo tshaj plaws lub npe hu siv lead ua los ntawm no hom yog tourmaline . Civ civ civ civ civ civmak no no ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb ceeb tiag ceeb Herapathite kuj dichroic, thiab yog tsis xav kob, tab sis yog ib qhov nyuaj rau loj hlob nyob rau hauv loj muaju.

Ib tug Polaroid polarizing lim zog piv rau ib tug atomic scale rau cov hlau-daim phiaj polarizer. Nws yog Ameslikas los ntawm microscopic herapathite muaju. Nws tam sim no H-daim ntawv daim ntawv no yog ua los ntawm polyvinyl cawv (PVA) yas nrog ib tug iodine doping. Ncab ntawm daim ntawv thaum lub chaw tsim ua rau lub PVA chains mus ua ke hauv ib qho kev coj. Valence electrons los ntawm cov iodine dopant yuav tau tsiv mus nyob linearly raws polymer chains, tab sis tsis transverse rau lawv. Yog li qhov teeb meem lub teeb polarized mus tib seem rau lub chains yog absorbed los ntawm daim ntawv; Lub teeb polarized perpendicularly rau lub chains yog kis. Lub durability thiab practicality ntawm Polaroid ua rau nws lub feem ntau ntau hom polarizer nyob rau hauv kev siv, piv txwv li rau looj tsom iav dub , photographic cov ntxaij lim dej , thiab kua siv lead ua qhia . Nws tseem yog ntau dua li lwm hom polarizer.

Hom kev tuaj yeem rau niaj hnub no yog ua los ntawm elongated nyiaj nanoparticles kos rau hauv nyias (≤0,5 mm) iav daim hlau. Cov polarizers muaj ntau cov kav ntev, thiab tuaj yeem ua kom zoo dua cov yas Polaroid zaj duab xis, ua kom tau qhov sib txawv ntawm 100,000: 1 thiab kev nqus ntawm lub teeb kom sov tuaj li qis li 1.5%. Tej iav polarizers ua zoo tshaj plaws rau luv luv-wavelength infrared lub teeb, thiab yog lug siv nyob rau hauv kho qhov muag fiber kev sib txuas lus .

Nqaj-splitting polarizers phua qhov teeb meem beam rau hauv ob kab teeb ntawm differing linear polarization. Rau ib qho zoo tagnrho polarizing beamsplitter cov no yuav muaj siab polarized, nrog orthogonal polarizations. Rau ntau cov kab nyom-splitting polarizers, li cas los xij, tsuas yog ib qho ntawm ob qho zis kab hluav taws xob puv nkaus xwb. Qhov sib xyaw ua ke muaj qhov sib xyaw ntawm polarization xeev.

Tsis zoo li absorptive polarizers, beam splitting polarizers tsis tas yuav nqus thiab dissipate lub zog ntawm cov tsis kam txais polarization lub xeev, thiab kom lawv muaj ntau haum rau kev siv uas muaj kev siv beams xws li laser lub teeb. Muaj tseeb polarizing beamsplitters kuj pab tau qhov twg qhov ob lub thawv polarization yog los soj ntsuam los sis siv ib txhij.